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MySQL 5.1 Reference Manual


This is the MySQL Reference Manual. It documents MySQL 5.1 through 5.1.7-beta.

Document generated on: 2006-02-23 (revision: 1428)

Table of Contents

1. General Information
1.1. About This Manual
1.2. Conventions Used in This Manual
1.3. Overview of MySQL AB
1.4. Overview of the MySQL Database Management System
1.4.1. History of MySQL
1.4.2. The Main Features of MySQL
1.4.3. MySQL Stability
1.4.4. How Large MySQL Tables Can Be
1.4.5. Year 2000 Compliance
1.5. Overview of the MaxDB Database Management System
1.5.1. What is MaxDB?
1.5.2. History of MaxDB
1.5.3. Features of MaxDB
1.5.4. Licensing and Support
1.5.5. Feature Differences Between MaxDB and MySQL
1.5.6. Interoperability Features Between MaxDB and MySQL
1.5.7. MaxDB-Related Links
1.6. MySQL Development Roadmap
1.6.1. What's New in MySQL 5.1
1.7. MySQL Information Sources
1.7.1. MySQL Mailing Lists
1.7.2. MySQL Community Support at the MySQL Forums
1.7.3. MySQL Community Support on Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
1.8. How to Report Bugs or Problems
1.9. MySQL Standards Compliance
1.9.1. What Standards MySQL Follows
1.9.2. Selecting SQL Modes
1.9.3. Running MySQL in ANSI Mode
1.9.4. MySQL Extensions to Standard SQL
1.9.5. MySQL Differences from Standard SQL
1.9.6. How MySQL Deals with Constraints
2. Installing and Upgrading MySQL
2.1. General Installation Issues
2.1.1. Operating Systems Supported by MySQL
2.1.2. Choosing Which MySQL Distribution to Install
2.1.3. How to Get MySQL
2.1.4. Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG
2.1.5. Installation Layouts
2.2. Standard MySQL Installation Using a Binary Distribution
2.3. Installing MySQL on Windows
2.3.1. Choosing An Installation Package
2.3.2. Installing MySQL with the Automated Installer
2.3.3. Using the MySQL Installation Wizard
2.3.4. Using the Configuration Wizard
2.3.5. Installing MySQL from a Noinstall Zip Archive
2.3.6. Extracting the Install Archive
2.3.7. Creating an Option File
2.3.8. Selecting a MySQL Server type
2.3.9. Starting the Server for the First Time
2.3.10. Starting MySQL from the Windows Command Line
2.3.11. Starting MySQL as a Windows Service
2.3.12. Testing The MySQL Installation
2.3.13. Troubleshooting a MySQL Installation Under Windows
2.3.14. Upgrading MySQL on Windows
2.3.15. MySQL on Windows Compared to MySQL on Unix
2.4. Installing MySQL on Linux
2.5. Installing MySQL on Mac OS X
2.6. Installing MySQL on NetWare
2.7. Installing MySQL on Other Unix-Like Systems
2.8. MySQL Installation Using a Source Distribution
2.8.1. Source Installation Overview
2.8.2. Typical configure Options
2.8.3. Installing from the Development Source Tree
2.8.4. Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL
2.8.5. MIT-pthreads Notes
2.8.6. Installing MySQL from Source on Windows
2.8.7. Compiling MySQL Clients on Windows
2.9. Post-Installation Setup and Testing
2.9.1. Windows Post-Installation Procedures
2.9.2. Unix Post-Installation Procedures
2.9.3. Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts
2.10. Upgrading MySQL
2.10.1. Upgrading from MySQL 5.0
2.10.2. Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine
2.11. Downgrading MySQL
2.12. Operating System-Specific Notes
2.12.1. Linux Notes
2.12.2. Mac OS X Notes
2.12.3. Solaris Notes
2.12.4. BSD Notes
2.12.5. Other Unix Notes
2.12.6. OS/2 Notes
2.13. Perl Installation Notes
2.13.1. Installing Perl on Unix
2.13.2. Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows
2.13.3. Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface
3. Tutorial
3.1. Connecting to and Disconnecting from the Server
3.2. Entering Queries
3.3. Creating and Using a Database
3.3.1. Creating and Selecting a Database
3.3.2. Creating a Table
3.3.3. Loading Data into a Table
3.3.4. Retrieving Information from a Table
3.4. Getting Information About Databases and Tables
3.5. Using mysql in Batch Mode
3.6. Examples of Common Queries
3.6.1. The Maximum Value for a Column
3.6.2. The Row Holding the Maximum of a Certain Column
3.6.3. Maximum of Column per Group
3.6.4. The Rows Holding the Group-wise Maximum of a Certain Field
3.6.5. Using User-Defined Variables
3.6.6. Using Foreign Keys
3.6.7. Searching on Two Keys
3.6.8. Calculating Visits Per Day
3.7. Queries from the Twin Project
3.7.1. Find All Non-distributed Twins
3.7.2. Show a Table of Twin Pair Status
3.8. Using MySQL with Apache
4. Using MySQL Programs
4.1. Overview of MySQL Programs
4.2. Invoking MySQL Programs
4.3. Specifying Program Options
4.3.1. Using Options on the Command Line
4.3.2. Using Option Files
4.3.3. Using Environment Variables to Specify Options
4.3.4. Using Options to Set Program Variables
5. Database Administration
5.1. Overview of Server-Side Programs
5.2. mysqld — The MySQL Server
5.2.1. mysqld Command Options
5.2.2. Server System Variables
5.2.3. Using System Variables
5.2.4. Server Status Variables
5.2.5. The Server SQL Mode
5.2.6. The MySQL Server Shutdown Process
5.3. MySQL Server Startup Programs
5.3.1. mysqld_safe — MySQL Server Startup Script
5.3.2. mysql.server — MySQL Server Startup Script
5.3.3. mysqld_multi — Manage Multiple MySQL Servers
5.4. mysqlmanager — The MySQL Instance Manager
5.4.1. Starting the MySQL Server with MySQL Instance Manager
5.4.2. Connecting to the MySQL Instance Manager and Creating User Accounts
5.4.3. MySQL Instance Manager Command Options
5.4.4. MySQL Instance Manager Configuration Files
5.4.5. Commands Recognized by the MySQL Instance Manager
5.5. Installation-Related Programs
5.5.1. mysql_fix_privilege_tables — Upgrade MySQL System Tables
5.5.2. mysql_upgrade — Check Tables for MySQL Upgrade
5.6. General Security Issues
5.6.1. General Security Guidelines
5.6.2. Making MySQL Secure Against Attackers
5.6.3. Security-Related mysqld Options
5.6.4. Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL
5.6.5. How to Run MySQL as a Normal User
5.7. The MySQL Access Privilege System
5.7.1. What the Privilege System Does
5.7.2. How the Privilege System Works
5.7.3. Privileges Provided by MySQL
5.7.4. Connecting to the MySQL Server
5.7.5. Access Control, Stage 1: Connection Verification
5.7.6. Access Control, Stage 2: Request Verification
5.7.7. When Privilege Changes Take Effect
5.7.8. Causes of Access denied Errors
5.7.9. Password Hashing as of MySQL 4.1
5.8. MySQL User Account Management
5.8.1. MySQL Usernames and Passwords
5.8.2. Adding New User Accounts to MySQL
5.8.3. Removing User Accounts from MySQL
5.8.4. Limiting Account Resources
5.8.5. Assigning Account Passwords
5.8.6. Keeping Your Password Secure
5.8.7. Using Secure Connections
5.9. Backup and Recovery
5.9.1. Database Backups
5.9.2. Example Backup and Recovery Strategy
5.9.3. Point-in-Time Recovery
5.9.4. Table Maintenance and Crash Recovery
5.10. MySQL Localization and International Usage
5.10.1. The Character Set Used for Data and Sorting
5.10.2. Setting the Error Message Language
5.10.3. Adding a New Character Set
5.10.4. The Character Definition Arrays
5.10.5. String Collating Support
5.10.6. Multi-Byte Character Support
5.10.7. Problems With Character Sets
5.10.8. MySQL Server Time Zone Support
5.11. MySQL Server Logs
5.11.1. Server Log Tables
5.11.2. The Error Log
5.11.3. The General Query Log
5.11.4. The Binary Log
5.11.5. The Slow Query Log
5.11.6. Server Log Maintenance
5.12. Running Multiple MySQL Servers on the Same Machine
5.12.1. Running Multiple Servers on Windows
5.12.2. Running Multiple Servers on Unix
5.12.3. Using Client Programs in a Multiple-Server Environment
5.13. The MySQL Query Cache
5.13.1. How the Query Cache Operates
5.13.2. Query Cache SELECT Options
5.13.3. Query Cache Configuration
5.13.4. Query Cache Status and Maintenance
6. Replication
6.1. Introduction to Replication
6.2. Replication Implementation Overview
6.3. Row-Based Replication
6.4. Replication Implementation Details
6.4.1. Replication Master Thread States
6.4.2. Replication Slave I/O Thread States
6.4.3. Replication Slave SQL Thread States
6.4.4. Replication Relay and Status Files
6.5. How to Set Up Replication
6.6. Replication Compatibility Between MySQL Versions
6.7. Upgrading a Replication Setup
6.7.1. Upgrading Replication to 5.0
6.8. Replication Features and Known Problems
6.9. Replication Startup Options
6.10. How Servers Evaluate Replication Rules
6.11. Replication FAQ
6.12. Comparison of Statement-Based Versus Row-Based Replication
6.13. Troubleshooting Replication
6.14. How to Report Replication Bugs or Problems
6.15. Auto-Increment in Multiple-Master Replication
7. Optimization
7.1. Optimization Overview
7.1.1. MySQL Design Limitations and Tradeoffs
7.1.2. Designing Applications for Portability
7.1.3. What We Have Used MySQL For
7.1.4. The MySQL Benchmark Suite
7.1.5. Using Your Own Benchmarks
7.2. Optimizing SELECT and Other Statements
7.2.1. Optimizing Queries with EXPLAIN
7.2.2. Estimating Query Performance
7.2.3. Speed of SELECT Queries
7.2.4. WHERE Clause Optimization
7.2.5. Range Optimization
7.2.6. Index Merge Optimization
7.2.7. IS NULL Optimization
7.2.8. DISTINCT Optimization
7.2.9. LEFT JOIN and RIGHT JOIN Optimization
7.2.10. Nested Join Optimization
7.2.11. Outer Join Simplification
7.2.12. ORDER BY Optimization
7.2.13. GROUP BY Optimization
7.2.14. LIMIT Optimization
7.2.15. How to Avoid Table Scans
7.2.16. Speed of INSERT Statements
7.2.17. Speed of UPDATE Statements
7.2.18. Speed of DELETE Statements
7.2.19. Other Optimization Tips
7.3. Locking Issues
7.3.1. Locking Methods
7.3.2. Table Locking Issues
7.3.3. Concurrent Inserts
7.4. Optimizing Database Structure
7.4.1. Design Choices
7.4.2. Make Your Data as Small as Possible
7.4.3. Column Indexes
7.4.4. Multiple-Column Indexes
7.4.5. How MySQL Uses Indexes
7.4.6. The MyISAM Key Cache
7.4.7. MyISAM Index Statistics Collection
7.4.8. How MySQL Opens and Closes Tables
7.4.9. Drawbacks to Creating Many Tables in the Same Database
7.5. Optimizing the MySQL Server
7.5.1. System Factors and Startup Parameter Tuning
7.5.2. Tuning Server Parameters
7.5.3. Controlling Query Optimizer Performance
7.5.4. How Compiling and Linking Affects the Speed of MySQL
7.5.5. How MySQL Uses Memory
7.5.6. How MySQL Uses DNS
7.6. Disk Issues
7.6.1. Using Symbolic Links
8. Client and Utility Programs
8.1. Overview of Client and Utility Programs
8.2. myisamchkMyISAM Table-Maintenance Utility
8.2.1. myisamchk General Options
8.2.2. myisamchk Check Options
8.2.3. myisamchk Repair Options
8.2.4. Other myisamchk Options
8.2.5. myisamchk Memory Usage
8.3. myisamlog — Display MyISAM Log File Contents
8.4. myisampack — Generate Compressed, Read-Only MyISAM Tables
8.5. mysql — The MySQL Command-Line Tool
8.5.1. mysql Options
8.5.2. mysql Commands
8.5.3. Executing SQL Statements from a Text File
8.5.4. mysql Tips
8.6. mysqlaccess — Client for Checking Access Privileges
8.7. mysqladmin — Client for Administering a MySQL Server
8.8. mysqlbinlog — Utility for Processing Binary Log Files
8.9. mysqlcheck — A Table Maintenance and Repair Program
8.10. mysqldump — A Database Backup Program
8.11. mysqlhotcopy — A Database Backup Program
8.12. mysqlimport — A Data Import Program
8.13. mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information
8.14. mysqlslap — Load Emulation Client
8.15. mysql_zap — Kill Processes That Match a Pattern
8.16. perror — Explain Error Codes
8.17. replace — A String-Replacement Utility
9. Language Structure
9.1. Literal Values
9.1.1. Strings
9.1.2. Numbers
9.1.3. Hexadecimal Values
9.1.4. Boolean Values
9.1.5. Bit-Field Values
9.1.6. NULL Values
9.2. Database, Table, Index, Column, and Alias Names
9.2.1. Identifier Qualifiers
9.2.2. Identifier Case Sensitivity
9.3. User-Defined Variables
9.4. Comment Syntax
9.5. Treatment of Reserved Words in MySQL
10. Character Set Support
10.1. Character Sets and Collations in General
10.2. Character Sets and Collations in MySQL
10.3. Specifying Character Sets and Collations
10.3.1. Server Character Set and Collation
10.3.2. Database Character Set and Collation
10.3.3. Table Character Set and Collation
10.3.4. Column Character Set and Collation
10.3.5. Character String Literal Character Set and Collation
10.3.6. National Character Set
10.3.7. Examples of Character Set and Collation Assignment
10.3.8. Compatibility with Other DBMSs
10.4. Connection Character Sets and Collations
10.5. Collation Issues
10.5.1. Using COLLATE in SQL Statements
10.5.2. COLLATE Clause Precedence
10.5.3. BINARY Operator
10.5.4. Some Special Cases Where the Collation Determination Is Tricky
10.5.5. Collations Must Be for the Right Character Set
10.5.6. An Example of the Effect of Collation
10.6. Operations Affected by Character Set Support
10.6.1. Result Strings
10.6.2. CONVERT() and CAST()
10.6.3. SHOW Statements and INFORMATION_SCHEMA
10.7. Unicode Support
10.8. UTF-8 for Metadata
10.9. Character Sets and Collations That MySQL Supports
10.9.1. Unicode Character Sets
10.9.2. West European Character Sets
10.9.3. Central European Character Sets
10.9.4. South European and Middle East Character Sets
10.9.5. Baltic Character Sets
10.9.6. Cyrillic Character Sets
10.9.7. Asian Character Sets
11. Data Types
11.1. Data Type Overview
11.1.1. Overview of Numeric Types
11.1.2. Overview of Date and Time Types
11.1.3. Overview of String Types
11.1.4. Data Type Default Values
11.2. Numeric Types
11.3. Date and Time Types
11.3.1. The DATETIME, DATE, and TIMESTAMP Types
11.3.2. The TIME Type
11.3.3. The YEAR Type
11.3.4. Y2K Issues and Date Types
11.4. String Types
11.4.1. The CHAR and VARCHAR Types
11.4.2. The BINARY and VARBINARY Types
11.4.3. The BLOB and TEXT Types
11.4.4. The ENUM Type
11.4.5. The SET Type
11.5. Data Type Storage Requirements
11.6. Choosing the Right Type for a Column
11.7. Using Data Types from Other Database Engines
12. Functions and Operators
12.1. Operators
12.1.1. Operator Precedence
12.1.2. Type Conversion in Expression Evaluation
12.1.3. Comparison Functions and Operators
12.1.4. Logical Operators
12.2. Control Flow Functions
12.3. String Functions
12.3.1. String Comparison Functions
12.4. Numeric Functions
12.4.1. Arithmetic Operators
12.4.2. Mathematical Functions
12.5. Date and Time Functions
12.6. What Calendar Is Used By MySQL?
12.7. Full-Text Search Functions
12.7.1. Boolean Full-Text Searches
12.7.2. Full-Text Searches with Query Expansion
12.7.3. Full-Text Stopwords
12.7.4. Full-Text Restrictions
12.7.5. Fine-Tuning MySQL Full-Text Search
12.8. Cast Functions and Operators
12.9. XML Functions
12.10. Other Functions
12.10.1. Bit Functions
12.10.2. Encryption and Compression Functions
12.10.3. Information Functions
12.10.4. Miscellaneous Functions
12.11. Functions and Modifiers for Use with GROUP BY Clauses
12.11.1. GROUP BY (Aggregate) Functions
12.11.2. GROUP BY Modifiers
12.11.3. GROUP BY with Hidden Fields
13. SQL Statement Syntax
13.1. Data Definition Statements
13.1.1. ALTER DATABASE Syntax
13.1.2. ALTER TABLE Syntax
13.1.3. CREATE DATABASE Syntax
13.1.4. CREATE INDEX Syntax
13.1.5. CREATE TABLE Syntax
13.1.6. DROP DATABASE Syntax
13.1.7. DROP INDEX Syntax
13.1.8. DROP TABLE Syntax
13.1.9. RENAME DATABASE Syntax
13.1.10. RENAME TABLE Syntax
13.2. Data Manipulation Statements
13.2.1. DELETE Syntax
13.2.2. DO Syntax
13.2.3. HANDLER Syntax
13.2.4. INSERT Syntax
13.2.5. LOAD DATA INFILE Syntax
13.2.6. REPLACE Syntax
13.2.7. SELECT Syntax
13.2.8. Subquery Syntax
13.2.9. TRUNCATE Syntax
13.2.10. UPDATE Syntax
13.3. MySQL Utility Statements
13.3.1. DESCRIBE Syntax
13.3.2. USE Syntax
13.4. MySQL Transactional and Locking Statements
13.4.2. Statements That Cannot Be Rolled Back
13.4.3. Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit
13.4.6. SET TRANSACTION Syntax
13.4.7. XA Transactions
13.5. Database Administration Statements
13.5.1. Account Management Statements
13.5.2. Table Maintenance Statements
13.5.3. SET Syntax
13.5.4. SHOW Syntax
13.5.5. Other Administrative Statements
13.6. Replication Statements
13.6.1. SQL Statements for Controlling Master Servers
13.6.2. SQL Statements for Controlling Slave Servers
13.7. SQL Syntax for Prepared Statements
14. Storage Engines and Table Types
14.1. The MyISAM Storage Engine
14.1.1. MyISAM Startup Options
14.1.2. Space Needed for Keys
14.1.3. MyISAM Table Storage Formats
14.1.4. MyISAM Table Problems
14.2. The InnoDB Storage Engine
14.2.1. InnoDB Overview
14.2.2. InnoDB Contact Information
14.2.3. InnoDB Configuration
14.2.4. InnoDB Startup Options and System Variables
14.2.5. Creating the InnoDB Tablespace
14.2.6. Creating and Using InnoDB Tables
14.2.7. Adding and Removing InnoDB Data and Log Files
14.2.8. Backing Up and Recovering an InnoDB Database
14.2.9. Moving an InnoDB Database to Another Machine
14.2.10. InnoDB Transaction Model and Locking
14.2.11. InnoDB Performance Tuning Tips
14.2.12. Implementation of Multi-Versioning
14.2.13. InnoDB Table and Index Structures
14.2.14. InnoDB File Space Management and Disk I/O
14.2.15. InnoDB Error Handling
14.2.16. Restrictions on InnoDB Tables
14.2.17. InnoDB Troubleshooting
14.3. The MERGE Storage Engine
14.3.1. MERGE Table Problems
14.4. The MEMORY (HEAP) Storage Engine
14.5. The BDB (BerkeleyDB) Storage Engine
14.5.1. Operating Systems Supported by BDB
14.5.2. Installing BDB
14.5.3. BDB Startup Options
14.5.4. Characteristics of BDB Tables
14.5.5. Things We Need to Fix for BDB
14.5.6. Restrictions on BDB Tables
14.5.7. Errors That May Occur When Using BDB Tables
14.6. The EXAMPLE Storage Engine
14.7. The FEDERATED Storage Engine
14.7.1. Description of the FEDERATED Storage Engine
14.7.2. How to use FEDERATED Tables
14.7.3. Limitations of the FEDERATED Storage Engine
14.8. The ARCHIVE Storage Engine
14.9. The CSV Storage Engine
14.10. The BLACKHOLE Storage Engine
15. Writing a Custom Storage Engine
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Overview
15.3. Creating Storage Engine Source Files
15.4. Creating the handlerton
15.5. Handling Handler Instantiation
15.6. Defining Filename Extensions
15.7. Creating Tables
15.8. Opening a Table
15.9. Implementing Basic Table Scanning
15.9.1. Implementing the store_lock() Function
15.9.2. Implementing the external_lock() Function
15.9.3. Implementing the rnd_init() Function
15.9.4. Implementing the info() Function
15.9.5. Implementing the extra() Function
15.9.6. Implementing the rnd_next() Function
15.10. Closing a Table
15.11. Adding Support for INSERT to a Storage Engine
15.12. Adding Support for UPDATE to a Storage Engine
15.13. Adding Support for DELETE to a Storage Engine
15.14. Supporting Non-Sequential Reads
15.14.1. Implementing the position() Function
15.14.2. Implementing the rnd_pos() Function
15.15. Supporting Indexing
15.15.1. Indexing Overview
15.15.2. Getting Index Information During CREATE TABLE Operations
15.15.3. Creating Index Keys
15.15.4. Parsing Key Information
15.15.5. Providing Index Information to the Optimizer
15.15.6. Preparing for Index Use with index_init()
15.15.7. Cleaning up with index_end()
15.15.8. Implementing the index_read() Function
15.15.9. Implementing the index_read_idx() Function
15.15.10. Implementing the index_next() Function
15.15.11. Implementing the index_prev() Function
15.15.12. Implementing the index_first() Function
15.15.13. Implementing the index_last() Function
15.16. Supporting Transactions
15.16.1. Transaction Overview
15.16.2. Starting a Transaction
15.16.3. Implementing ROLLBACK
15.16.4. Implementing COMMIT
15.16.5. Adding Support for Savepoints
15.17. API Reference
15.17.1. bas_ext
15.17.2. close
15.17.3. create
15.17.4. delete_row
15.17.5. delete_table
15.17.6. external_lock
15.17.7. extra
15.17.8. index_end
15.17.9. index_first
15.17.10. index_init
15.17.11. index_last
15.17.12. index_next
15.17.13. index_prev
15.17.14. index_read_idx
15.17.15. index_read
15.17.16. info
15.17.17. open
15.17.18. position
15.17.19. records_in_range
15.17.20. rnd_init
15.17.21. rnd_next
15.17.22. rnd_pos
15.17.23. start_stmt
15.17.24. store_lock
15.17.25. update_row
15.17.26. write_row
16. MySQL Cluster
16.1. MySQL Cluster Overview
16.2. Basic MySQL Cluster Concepts
16.2.1. MySQL Cluster Nodes, Node Groups, Replicas, and Partitions
16.3. Simple Multi-Computer How-To
16.3.1. Hardware, Software, and Networking
16.3.2. Multi-Computer Installation
16.3.3. Multi-Computer Configuration
16.3.4. Initial Startup
16.3.5. Loading Sample Data and Performing Queries
16.3.6. Safe Shutdown and Restart
16.4. MySQL Cluster Configuration
16.4.1. Building MySQL Cluster from Source Code
16.4.2. Installing the Software
16.4.3. Quick Test Setup of MySQL Cluster
16.4.4. Configuration File
16.5. Process Management in MySQL Cluster
16.5.1. MySQL Server Process Usage for MySQL Cluster
16.5.2. ndbd, the Storage Engine Node Process
16.5.3. ndb_mgmd, the Management Server Process
16.5.4. ndb_mgm, the Management Client Process
16.5.5. Command Options for MySQL Cluster Processes
16.6. Management of MySQL Cluster
16.6.1. MySQL Cluster Startup Phases
16.6.2. Commands in the Management Client
16.6.3. Event Reports Generated in MySQL Cluster
16.6.4. Single-User Mode
16.6.5. On-line Backup of MySQL Cluster
16.7. MySQL Cluster Replication
16.7.1. Abbreviations and Symbols
16.7.2. Assumptions and General Requirements
16.7.3. Known Issues
16.7.4. Replication Schema and Tables
16.7.5. Preparing the Cluster for Replication
16.7.6. Starting Replication (Single Replication Channel)
16.7.7. Using Two Replication Channels
16.7.8. Implementing Failover with MySQL Cluster
16.7.9. MySQL Cluster Backups With Replication
16.8. Using High-Speed Interconnects with MySQL Cluster
16.8.1. Configuring MySQL Cluster to use SCI Sockets
16.8.2. Understanding the Impact of Cluster Interconnects
16.9. Known Limitations of MySQL Cluster
16.10. MySQL Cluster Development Roadmap
16.10.1. MySQL Cluster Changes in MySQL 5.0
16.10.2. MySQL 5.1 Development Roadmap for MySQL Cluster
16.11. MySQL Cluster FAQ
16.12. MySQL Cluster Glossary
17. Partitioning
17.1. Overview of Partitioning in MySQL
17.2. Partition Types
17.2.1. RANGE Partitioning
17.2.2. LIST Partitioning
17.2.3. HASH Partitioning
17.2.4. KEY Partitioning
17.2.5. Subpartitioning
17.2.6. How MySQL Partitioning Handles NULL Values
17.3. Partition Management
17.3.1. Management of RANGE and LIST Partitions
17.3.2. Management of HASH and KEY Partitions
17.3.3. Maintenance of Partitions
17.3.4. Obtaining Information About Partitions
17.4. Restrictions and Limitations on Partitioning
18. Spatial Extensions
18.1. Introduction to MySQL Spatial Support
18.2. The OpenGIS Geometry Model
18.2.1. The Geometry Class Hierarchy
18.2.2. Class Geometry
18.2.3. Class Point
18.2.4. Class Curve
18.2.5. Class LineString
18.2.6. Class Surface
18.2.7. Class Polygon
18.2.8. Class GeometryCollection
18.2.9. Class MultiPoint
18.2.10. Class MultiCurve
18.2.11. Class MultiLineString
18.2.12. Class MultiSurface
18.2.13. Class MultiPolygon
18.3. Supported Spatial Data Formats
18.3.1. Well-Known Text (WKT) Format
18.3.2. Well-Known Binary (WKB) Format
18.4. Creating a Spatially Enabled MySQL Database
18.4.1. MySQL Spatial Data Types
18.4.2. Creating Spatial Values
18.4.3. Creating Spatial Columns
18.4.4. Populating Spatial Columns
18.4.5. Fetching Spatial Data
18.5. Analyzing Spatial Information
18.5.1. Geometry Format Conversion Functions
18.5.2. Geometry Functions
18.5.3. Functions That Create New Geometries from Existing Ones
18.5.4. Functions for Testing Spatial Relations Between Geometric Objects
18.5.5. Relations on Geometry Minimal Bounding Rectangles (MBRs)
18.5.6. Functions That Test Spatial Relationships Between Geometries
18.6. Optimizing Spatial Analysis
18.6.1. Creating Spatial Indexes
18.6.2. Using a Spatial Index
18.7. MySQL Conformance and Compatibility
19. Stored Procedures and Functions
19.1. Stored Routines and the Grant Tables
19.2. Stored Procedure Syntax
19.2.4. CALL Statement Syntax
19.2.5. BEGIN ... END Compound Statement Syntax
19.2.6. DECLARE Statement Syntax
19.2.7. Variables in Stored Routines
19.2.8. Conditions and Handlers
19.2.9. Cursors
19.2.10. Flow Control Constructs
19.3. Stored Procedures, Functions, Triggers, and Replication: Frequently Asked Questions
19.4. Binary Logging of Stored Routines and Triggers
20. Triggers
20.2. DROP TRIGGER Syntax
20.3. Using Triggers
21. Event Scheduler
21.1. Event Scheduler Overview
21.2. Event Scheduler Syntax
21.2.1. CREATE EVENT Syntax
21.2.2. ALTER EVENT Syntax
21.2.3. DROP EVENT Syntax
21.3. Event Metadata
21.4. The Event Scheduler and MySQL Privileges
21.5. Event Scheduler Limitations and Restrictions
22.1. ALTER VIEW Syntax
22.2. CREATE VIEW Syntax
22.3. DROP VIEW Syntax
23.23. Other INFORMATION_SCHEMA Tables
23.24. Extensions to SHOW Statements
24. Precision Math
24.1. Types of Numeric Values
24.2. DECIMAL Data Type Changes
24.3. Expression Handling
24.4. Rounding Behavior
24.5. Precision Math Examples
25. APIs and Libraries
25.1. libmysqld, the Embedded MySQL Server Library
25.1.1. Overview of the Embedded MySQL Server Library
25.1.2. Compiling Programs with libmysqld
25.1.3. Restrictions when using the Embedded MySQL Server
25.1.4. Options with the Embedded Server
25.1.5. Things left to do in Embedded Server (TODO)
25.1.6. Embedded Server Examples
25.1.7. Licensing the Embedded Server
25.2. MySQL C API
25.2.1. C API Data types
25.2.2. C API Function Overview
25.2.3. C API Function Descriptions
25.2.4. C API Prepared Statements
25.2.5. C API Prepared Statement Data types
25.2.6. C API Prepared Statement Function Overview
25.2.7. C API Prepared Statement Function Descriptions
25.2.8. C API Prepared statement problems
25.2.9. C API Handling of Multiple Query Execution
25.2.10. C API Handling of Date and Time Values
25.2.11. C API Threaded Function Descriptions
25.2.12. C API Embedded Server Function Descriptions
25.2.13. Common questions and problems when using the C API
25.2.14. Building Client Programs
25.2.15. How to Make a Threaded Client
25.3.1. Common Problems with MySQL and PHP
25.4. MySQL Perl API
25.5. MySQL C++ API
25.5.1. Borland C++
25.6. MySQL Python API
25.7. MySQL Tcl API
25.8. MySQL Eiffel Wrapper
25.9. MySQL Program Development Utilities
25.9.1. msql2mysql — Convert mSQL Programs for Use with MySQL
25.9.2. mysql_config — Get Compile Options for Compiling Clients
26. Connectors
26.1. MySQL Connector/ODBC
26.1.1. Introduction to MyODBC
26.1.2. General Information About ODBC and MyODBC
26.1.3. How to Install MyODBC
26.1.4. Installing MyODBC from a Binary Distribution on Windows
26.1.5. Installing MyODBC from a Binary Distribution on Unix
26.1.6. Installing MyODBC from a Source Distribution on Windows
26.1.7. Installing MyODBC from a Source Distribution on Unix
26.1.8. Installing MyODBC from the BitKeeper Development Source Tree
26.1.9. MyODBC Configuration
26.1.10. MyODBC Connection-Related Issues
26.1.11. MyODBC and Microsoft Access
26.1.12. MyODBC and Microsoft VBA and ASP
26.1.13. MyODBC and Third-Party ODBC Tools
26.1.14. MyODBC General Functionality
26.1.15. Basic MyODBC Application Steps
26.1.16. MyODBC API Reference
26.1.17. MyODBC Data Types
26.1.18. MyODBC Error Codes
26.1.19. MyODBC With VB: ADO, DAO and RDO
26.1.20. MyODBC with Microsoft .NET
26.1.21. Credits
26.2. MySQL Connector/NET
26.2.1. Introduction
26.2.2. Downloading and Installing MySQL Connector/NET
26.2.3. Connector/NET Architecture
26.2.4. Using MySQL Connector/NET
26.2.5. MySQL Connector/NET Change History
26.3. MySQL Connector/J
26.3.1. Basic JDBC concepts
26.3.2. Installing Connector/J
26.3.3. JDBC Reference
26.3.4. Using Connector/J with J2EE and Other Java Frameworks
26.3.5. Diagnosing Connector/J Problems
26.3.6. MySQL Connector/J Change History
26.4. MySQL Connector/MXJ
26.4.1. Introduction
26.4.2. Support Platforms:
26.4.3. JUnit Test Requirements
26.4.4. Running the JUnit Tests
26.4.5. Running as part of the JDBC Driver
26.4.6. Running within a Java Object
26.4.7. The MysqldResource API
26.4.8. Running within a JMX Agent (custom)
26.4.9. Deployment in a standard JMX Agent environment (JBoss)
26.4.10. Installation
26.5. Connector/PHP
27. Extending MySQL
27.1. MySQL Internals
27.1.1. MySQL Threads
27.1.2. MySQL Test Suite
27.2. The MySQL Plugin Interface
27.2.1. Characteristics of the Plugin Interface
27.2.2. Full-Text Parser Plugins
27.2.3. INSTALL PLUGIN Syntax
27.2.5. Writing Plugins
27.3. Adding New Functions to MySQL
27.3.1. Features of the User-Defined Function Interface
27.3.2. CREATE FUNCTION Syntax
27.3.3. DROP FUNCTION Syntax
27.3.4. Adding a New User-Defined Function
27.3.5. Adding a New Native Function
27.4. Adding New Procedures to MySQL
27.4.1. Procedure Analyse
27.4.2. Writing a Procedure
A. Problems and Common Errors
A.1. How to Determine What Is Causing a Problem
A.2. Common Errors When Using MySQL Programs
A.2.1. Access denied
A.2.2. Can't connect to [local] MySQL server
A.2.3. Client does not support authentication protocol
A.2.4. Password Fails When Entered Interactively
A.2.5. Host 'host_name' is blocked
A.2.6. Too many connections
A.2.7. Out of memory
A.2.8. MySQL server has gone away
A.2.9. Packet too large
A.2.10. Communication Errors and Aborted Connections
A.2.11. The table is full
A.2.12. Can't create/write to file
A.2.13. Commands out of sync
A.2.14. Ignoring user
A.2.15. Table 'tbl_name' doesn't exist
A.2.16. Can't initialize character set
A.2.17. File Not Found
A.3. Installation-Related Issues
A.3.1. Problems Linking to the MySQL Client Library
A.3.2. Problems with File Permissions
A.4. Administration-Related Issues
A.4.1. How to Reset the Root Password
A.4.2. What to Do If MySQL Keeps Crashing
A.4.3. How MySQL Handles a Full Disk
A.4.4. Where MySQL Stores Temporary Files
A.4.5. How to Protect or Change the MySQL Unix Socket File
A.4.6. Time Zone Problems
A.5. Query-Related Issues
A.5.1. Case Sensitivity in Searches
A.5.2. Problems Using DATE Columns
A.5.3. Problems with NULL Values
A.5.4. Problems with Column Aliases
A.5.5. Rollback Failure for Non-Transactional Tables
A.5.6. Deleting Rows from Related Tables
A.5.7. Solving Problems with No Matching Rows
A.5.8. Problems with Floating-Point Comparisons
A.6. Optimizer-Related Issues
A.7. Table Definition-Related Issues
A.7.1. Problems with ALTER TABLE
A.7.2. How to Change the Order of Columns in a Table
A.8. Known Issues in MySQL
A.8.1. Open Issues in MySQL
B. Error Codes and Messages
B.1. Server Error Codes and Messages
B.2. Client Error Codes and Messages
C. Credits
C.1. Developers at MySQL AB
C.2. Contributors to MySQL
C.3. Documenters and translators
C.4. Libraries used by and included with MySQL
C.5. Packages that support MySQL
C.6. Tools that were used to create MySQL
C.7. Supporters of MySQL
D. MySQL Change History
D.1. Changes in release 5.1.x (Development)
D.1.1. Changes in release 5.1.8 (Not yet released)
D.1.2. Changes in release 5.1.7 (Not yet released)
D.1.3. Changes in release 5.1.6 (01 February 2006)
D.1.4. Changes in release 5.1.5 (10 January 2006)
D.1.5. Changes in release 5.1.4 (21 December 2005)
D.1.6. Changes in release 5.1.3 (29 November 2005)
D.1.7. Changes in release 5.1.2 (Not released)
D.1.8. Changes in release 5.1.1 (Not released)
D.2. Changes in MyODBC
D.2.1. Changes in MyODBC 3.51.13
D.2.2. Changes in MyODBC 3.51.12
D.2.3. Changes in MyODBC 3.51.11
E. Porting to Other Systems
E.1. Debugging a MySQL Server
E.1.1. Compiling MySQL for Debugging
E.1.2. Creating Trace Files
E.1.3. Debugging mysqld under gdb
E.1.4. Using a Stack Trace
E.1.5. Using Server Logs to Find Causes of Errors in mysqld
E.1.6. Making a Test Case If You Experience Table Corruption
E.2. Debugging a MySQL Client
E.3. The DBUG Package
E.4. Comments about RTS Threads
E.5. Differences Between Thread Packages
F. Environment Variables
G. Regular Expressions
H. Limits in MySQL
H.1. Limits of Joins
I. Feature Restrictions
I.1. Restrictions on Stored Routines and Triggers
I.2. Restrictions on Server-Side Cursors
I.3. Restrictions on Subqueries
I.4. Restrictions on Views
I.5. Restrictions on XA Transactions
J. GNU General Public License
K. MySQL FLOSS License Exception

List of Figures

15.1. MySQL architecture

  Published under the terms of the GNU General Public License Design by Interspire