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7.5.2. Tuning Server Parameters

You can determine the default buffer sizes used by the mysqld server using this command:

shell> mysqld --verbose --help

This command produces a list of all mysqld options and configurable system variables. The output includes the default variable values and looks something like this:

help                              TRUE
abort-slave-event-count           0
allow-suspicious-udfs             FALSE
auto-increment-increment          1
auto-increment-offset             1
automatic-sp-privileges           TRUE
basedir                           /home/jon/bin/mysql/
bdb                               FALSE
bind-address                      (No default value)
character-set-client-handshake    TRUE
character-set-server              latin1
character-sets-dir                /home/jon/bin/mysql/share/mysql/charsets/
chroot                            (No default value)
collation-server                  latin1_swedish_ci
completion-type                   0
concurrent-insert                 1
console                           FALSE
datadir                           /home/jon/bin/mysql/var/
default-character-set             latin1
default-collation                 latin1_swedish_ci
default-time-zone                 (No default value)
disconnect-slave-event-count      0
enable-locking                    FALSE
enable-pstack                     FALSE
engine-condition-pushdown         FALSE
external-locking                  FALSE
gdb                               FALSE
large-pages                       FALSE
init-connect                      (No default value)
init-file                         (No default value)
init-slave                        (No default value)
innodb                            TRUE
innodb_checksums                  TRUE
innodb_data_home_dir              (No default value)
innodb_doublewrite                TRUE
innodb_fast_shutdown              1
innodb_file_per_table             FALSE
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit    1
innodb_flush_method               (No default value)
innodb_locks_unsafe_for_binlog    FALSE
innodb_log_arch_dir               (No default value)
innodb_log_group_home_dir         (No default value)
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct        90
innodb_max_purge_lag              0
innodb_status_file                FALSE
innodb_table_locks                TRUE
innodb_support_xa                 TRUE
isam                              FALSE
language                          /home/jon/bin/mysql/share/mysql/english
local-infile                      TRUE
log                               /home/jon/bin/mysql/var/master1.log
log-bin                           /home/jon/bin/mysql/var/master1
log-bin-index                     (No default value)
log-bin-trust-routine-creators    FALSE
log-error                         /home/jon/bin/mysql/var/master1.err
log-isam                          myisam.log
log-queries-not-using-indexes     FALSE
log-short-format                  FALSE
log-slave-updates                 FALSE
log-slow-admin-statements         FALSE
log-slow-queries                  (No default value)
log-tc                            tc.log
log-tc-size                       24576
log-update                        (No default value)
log-warnings                      1
low-priority-updates              FALSE
master-connect-retry              60
master-host                       (No default value)
master-password                   (No default value)
master-port                       3306
master-retry-count                86400
master-ssl                        FALSE
master-ssl-ca                     (No default value)
master-ssl-capath                 (No default value)
master-ssl-cert                   (No default value)
master-ssl-cipher                 (No default value)
master-ssl-key                    (No default value)
master-user                       test
max-binlog-dump-events            0
memlock                           FALSE
myisam-recover                    OFF
ndbcluster                        FALSE
ndb-connectstring                 (No default value)
ndb-mgmd-host                     (No default value)
ndb-nodeid                        0
ndb-autoincrement-prefetch-sz     32
ndb-distibution                   KEYHASH
ndb-force-send                    TRUE
ndb_force_send                    TRUE
ndb-use-exact-count               TRUE
ndb_use_exact_count               TRUE
ndb-shm                           FALSE
ndb-optimized-node-selection      TRUE
ndb-cache-check-time              0
ndb-index-stat-enable             TRUE
ndb-index-stat-cache-entries      32
ndb-index-stat-update-freq        20
new                               FALSE
old-alter-table                   FALSE
old-passwords                     FALSE
old-style-user-limits             FALSE
pid-file                          /home/jon/bin/mysql/var/hostname.pid1
port                              3306
relay-log                         (No default value)
relay-log-index                   (No default value)
replicate-same-server-id          FALSE
report-host                       (No default value)
report-password                   (No default value)
report-port                       3306
report-user                       (No default value)
rpl-recovery-rank                 0
safe-user-create                  FALSE
secure-auth                       FALSE
server-id                         1
show-slave-auth-info              FALSE
skip-grant-tables                 FALSE
skip-slave-start                  FALSE
slave-load-tmpdir                 /tmp/
socket                            /tmp/mysql.sock
sporadic-binlog-dump-fail         FALSE
sql-mode                          OFF
symbolic-links                    TRUE
tc-heuristic-recover              (No default value)
temp-pool                         TRUE
timed_mutexes                     FALSE
tmpdir                            (No default value)
use-symbolic-links                TRUE
verbose                           TRUE
warnings                          1
back_log                          50
binlog_cache_size                 32768
bulk_insert_buffer_size           8388608
connect_timeout                   5
date_format                       (No default value)
datetime_format                   (No default value)
default_week_format               0
delayed_insert_limit              100
delayed_insert_timeout            300
delayed_queue_size                1000
expire_logs_days                  0
flush_time                        0
ft_max_word_len                   84
ft_min_word_len                   4
ft_query_expansion_limit          20
ft_stopword_file                  (No default value)
group_concat_max_len              1024
innodb_additional_mem_pool_size   1048576
innodb_autoextend_increment       8
innodb_buffer_pool_awe_mem_mb     0
innodb_buffer_pool_size           8388608
innodb_concurrency_tickets        500
innodb_file_io_threads            4
innodb_force_recovery             0
innodb_lock_wait_timeout          50
innodb_log_buffer_size            1048576
innodb_log_file_size              5242880
innodb_log_files_in_group         2
innodb_mirrored_log_groups        1
innodb_open_files                 300
innodb_sync_spin_loops            20
innodb_thread_concurrency         20
innodb_commit_concurrency         0
innodb_thread_sleep_delay         10000
interactive_timeout               28800
join_buffer_size                  131072
key_buffer_size                   8388600
key_cache_age_threshold           300
key_cache_block_size              1024
key_cache_division_limit          100
long_query_time                   10
lower_case_table_names            0
max_allowed_packet                1048576
max_binlog_cache_size             4294967295
max_binlog_size                   1073741824
max_connect_errors                10
max_connections                   100
max_delayed_threads               20
max_error_count                   64
max_heap_table_size               16777216
max_join_size                     4294967295
max_length_for_sort_data          1024
max_relay_log_size                0
max_seeks_for_key                 4294967295
max_sort_length                   1024
max_tmp_tables                    32
max_user_connections              0
max_write_lock_count              4294967295
multi_range_count                 256
myisam_block_size                 1024
myisam_data_pointer_size          6
myisam_max_extra_sort_file_size   2147483648
myisam_max_sort_file_size         2147483647
myisam_repair_threads             1
myisam_sort_buffer_size           8388608
myisam_stats_method               nulls_unequal
net_buffer_length                 16384
net_read_timeout                  30
net_retry_count                   10
net_write_timeout                 60
open_files_limit                  0
optimizer_prune_level             1
optimizer_search_depth            62
preload_buffer_size               32768
query_alloc_block_size            8192
query_cache_limit                 1048576
query_cache_min_res_unit          4096
query_cache_size                  0
query_cache_type                  1
query_cache_wlock_invalidate      FALSE
query_prealloc_size               8192
range_alloc_block_size            2048
read_buffer_size                  131072
read_only                         FALSE
read_rnd_buffer_size              262144
div_precision_increment           4
record_buffer                     131072
relay_log_purge                   TRUE
relay_log_space_limit             0
slave_compressed_protocol         FALSE
slave_net_timeout                 3600
slave_transaction_retries         10
slow_launch_time                  2
sort_buffer_size                  2097144
sync-binlog                       0
sync-frm                          TRUE
sync-replication                  0
sync-replication-slave-id         0
sync-replication-timeout          10
table_open_cache                  64
table_lock_wait_timeout           50
thread_cache_size                 0
thread_concurrency                10
thread_stack                      196608
time_format                       (No default value)
tmp_table_size                    33554432
transaction_alloc_block_size      8192
transaction_prealloc_size         4096
updatable_views_with_limit        1
wait_timeout                      28800

If there is a mysqld server currently running, you can see the current values of its system variables by connecting to it and issuing this statement:


You can also see some statistical and status indicators for a running server by issuing this statement:


System variable and status information also can be obtained using mysqladmin:

shell> mysqladmin variables
shell> mysqladmin extended-status

For a full description for all system and status variables, see Section 5.2.2, “Server System Variables”, and Section 5.2.4, “Server Status Variables”.

MySQL uses algorithms that are very scalable, so you can usually run with very little memory. However, normally you get better performance by giving MySQL more memory.

When tuning a MySQL server, the two most important variables to configure are key_buffer_size and table_open_cache. You should first feel confident that you have these set appropriately before trying to change any other variables.

The following examples indicate some typical variable values for different runtime configurations.

  • If you have at least 256MB of memory and many tables and want maximum performance with a moderate number of clients, you should use something like this:

    shell> mysqld_safe --key_buffer_size=64M --table_open_cache=256 \
               --sort_buffer_size=4M --read_buffer_size=1M &
  • If you have only 128MB of memory and only a few tables, but you still do a lot of sorting, you can use something like this:

    shell> mysqld_safe --key_buffer_size=16M --sort_buffer_size=1M

    If there are very many simultaneous connections, swapping problems may occur unless mysqld has been configured to use very little memory for each connection. mysqld performs better if you have enough memory for all connections.

  • With little memory and lots of connections, use something like this:

    shell> mysqld_safe --key_buffer_size=512K --sort_buffer_size=100K \
               --read_buffer_size=100K &

    Or even this:

    shell> mysqld_safe --key_buffer_size=512K --sort_buffer_size=16K \
               --table_open_cache=32 --read_buffer_size=8K \
               --net_buffer_length=1K &

If you are performing GROUP BY or ORDER BY operations on tables that are much larger than your available memory, you should increase the value of read_rnd_buffer_size to speed up the reading of rows following sorting operations.

When you have installed MySQL, the support-files directory contains some different my.cnf sample files: my-huge.cnf, my-large.cnf, my-medium.cnf, and my-small.cnf. You can use these as a basis for optimizing your system. (On Windows, look in the MySQL installation directory.)

If you specify an option on the command line for mysqld or mysqld_safe, it remains in effect only for that invocation of the server. To use the option every time the server runs, put it in an option file.

To see the effects of a parameter change, do something like this:

shell> mysqld --key_buffer_size=32M --verbose --help

The variable values are listed near the end of the output. Make sure that the --verbose and --help options are last. Otherwise, the effect of any options listed after them on the command line are not reflected in the output.

For information on tuning the InnoDB storage engine, see Section 14.2.11, “InnoDB Performance Tuning Tips”.

  Published under the terms of the GNU General Public License Design by Interspire