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System Administration Guide: Network Services
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Configuring the Dial-out Machine

The tasks in this section explain how to configure a dial-out machine. The tasks use as an example the dial- in-from-home scenario that was introduced in Figure 16-1. You can perform the tasks at your company before passing on the machine to a prospective user. Alternatively, you can instruct experienced users in the setup of their home machines. Anyone setting up a dial-out machine must have root permission for that machine.

Tasks for Configuring the Dial-out Machine (Task Map)

Table 17-2 Task Map for Setting Up the Dial-out Machine

Task

Description

For Instructions

1. Gather preconfiguration information

Gather data that is needed prior to setting up the link, such as peer host names, target phone numbers, and modem speed.

Planning a Dial-up PPP Link

2. Configure the modem and serial port

Set up the modem and serial port.

How to Configure the Modem and Serial Port (Dial-out Machine)

3. Configure the serial-line communication

Configure the characteristics of the transmission across the serial line.

How to Define Communications Over the Serial Line

4. Define the conversation between the dial-out machine and the peer

Gather communications data for use when you create the chat script.

How to Create the Instructions for Calling a Peer

5. Configure information about a particular peer

Configure PPP options to call an individual dial-in server.

How to Define the Connection With an Individual Peer

6. Call the peer

Type the pppd command to initiate communications.

How to Call the Dial-in Server.

Dial-up PPP Template Files

Solaris PPP 4.0 provides template files. Each template contains common options for a particular PPP configuration file. The next table lists the sample templates that can be used for setting up a dial-up link, and their equivalent Solaris PPP 4.0 files.

Template File

PPP Configuration File

For Instructions

/etc/ppp/options.tmpl

/etc/ppp/options

/etc/ppp/options.tmpl Template

/etc/ppp/options.ttya.tmpl

/etc/ppp/options.ttyname

options.ttya.tmpl Template File

/etc/ppp/myisp-chat.tmpl

File with the name of your choice to contain the chat script

/etc/ppp/myisp-chat.tmpl Chat Script Template

/etc/ppp/peers/myisp.tmpl

/etc/ppp/peers/peer-name

/etc/ppp/peers/myisp.tmpl Template File

If you decide to use one of the template files, be sure to rename the template to its equivalent PPP configuration file. The one exception is the chat file template /etc/ppp/myisp-chat.tmpl. You can choose any name for your chat script.

Configuring Devices on the Dial-out Machine

The first task for setting up a dial-out PPP machine is to configure the devices on the serial line: the modem and serial port.


Note - Tasks that apply to a modem usually apply to an ISDN TA.


Before performing the next procedure, you must have done the following.

  • Installed the Solaris 9 release or Solaris 10 release on the dial-out machine

  • Determined the optimum modem speed

  • Decided which serial port to use on the dial-out machine

  • Obtained the root password for the dial-out machine

For planning information, see Table 16-2.

How to Configure the Modem and Serial Port (Dial-out Machine)

  1. Program the modem.

    Even though a variety of modem types is available, most modems are shipped with the correct settings for Solaris PPP 4.0. The following list shows the basic parameter settings for modems that use Solaris PPP 4.0.

    • DCD – Follow carrier instructions

    • DTR – Set low so that the modem hangs up and puts the modem on-hook

    • Flow Control – Set to RTS/CTS for full-duplex hardware flow control

    • Attention Sequences – Disable

    If you have problems setting up the link and suspect that the modem is at fault, first consult the modem manufacturer's documentation. Also, a number of web sites offer help with modem programming. Finally, you can find some suggestions for clearing modem problems in How to Diagnose Modem Problems.

  2. Attach the modem cables to the serial port on the dial-out machine and to the telephone jack.
  3. Become superuser on the dial-out machine or assume an equivalent role.

    Roles contain authorizations and privileged commands. For more information about roles, see Configuring RBAC (Task Map) in System Administration Guide: Security Services. To configure a role with the Primary Administrator profile, see Chapter 2, Working With the Solaris Management Console (Tasks), in System Administration Guide: Basic Administration.

  4. Run the /usr/sadm/bin/smc command, as explained in Setting Up Terminals and Modems With Serial Ports Tool (Overview) in System Administration Guide: Advanced Administration. This command opens the Solaris Management Console.

    Use the Solaris Management Console to do the following.

    1. Select the port where you have attached the modem.
    2. Specify modem direction as dial-out only.

      You can set up the modem as bidirectional. However, the dial-out-only choice is more secure against possible intruders.


    Note - You can set the baud rate and timeout from /usr/sadm/bin/smc. However, the pppd daemon ignores these settings.


  5. Click Okay to convey the changes.

Configuring Communications on the Dial-out Machine

The procedures in this section show how to configure communications over the serial line of the dial-out machine. Before you can use these procedures, you must have configured the modem and serial port, as described in How to Configure the Modem and Serial Port (Dial-out Machine).

The next tasks show how to enable the dial-out machine to successfully initiate communications with the dial-in server. Communications are initiated as defined in the options in the PPP configuration files. You need to create the following files:

  • /etc/ppp/options

  • /etc/ppp/options.ttyname

  • Chat script

  • /etc/ppp/peers/peer-name

Solaris PPP 4.0 provides templates for the PPP configuration files, which you can customize to accommodate your needs. Refer to Dial-up PPP Template Files for detailed information about these files.

How to Define Communications Over the Serial Line

  1. Become superuser on the dial-out machine or assume an equivalent role.

    Roles contain authorizations and privileged commands. For more information about roles, see Configuring RBAC (Task Map) in System Administration Guide: Security Services. To configure a role with the Primary Administrator profile, see Chapter 2, Working With the Solaris Management Console (Tasks), in System Administration Guide: Basic Administration

  2. Create a file that is called /etc/ppp/options with the following entry:
    lock

    The /etc/ppp/options file is used for defining global parameters that apply to all communications by the local machine. The lock option enables UUCP-style locking of the form /var/spool/locks/LK.xxx.yyy.zzz.


    Note - If the dial-out machine does not have an /etc/ppp/options file, only the superuser can run the pppd command. However, the /etc/ppp/options can be empty.


    For a complete description of /etc/ppp/options, refer to /etc/ppp/options Configuration File.

  3. (Optional) Create a file that is called /etc/ppp/options.ttyname for defining how communications should be initiated from a specific serial port.

    The next example shows an /etc/ppp/options.ttyname file for the port with the device name /dev/cua/a.

    # cat /etc/ppp/options.cua.a
    crtscts

    The PPP option crtscts tells the pppd daemon to turn on hardware flow control for serial port a.

    For more information about the /etc/ppp/options.ttyname file, go to /etc/ppp/options.ttyname Configuration File.

  4. Set the modem speed, as described in How to Set the Modem Speed.

How to Create the Instructions for Calling a Peer

Before the dial-out machine can initiate a PPP link, you must collect information about the dial-in server that is to become the peer. Then, you use this information to create the chat script, which describes the actual conversation between the dial-out machine and the peer.

  1. Determine the speed at which the dial-out machine's modem needs to run.

    For more information, see Configuring Modem Speed for a Dial-up Link.

  2. Obtain the following information from the dial-in server's site.
    • Server's telephone number

    • Authentication protocol that is used, if appropriate

    • Login sequence that is required by the peer for the chat script

  3. Obtain the names and IP addresses of name servers at the dial-in server's site.
  4. In a chat script, provide instructions for initiating calls to the particular peer.

    For example, you might create the following chat script, /etc/ppp/mychat, to call the dial-in server myserver.

    SAY "Calling the peer\n"
            TIMEOUT 10
            ABORT BUSY
            ABORT 'NO CARRIER'
            ABORT ERROR
            REPORT CONNECT
            "" AT&F1&M5S2=255
            TIMEOUT 60
            OK ATDT1-123-555-1234 
            CONNECT \c
            SAY "Connected; logging in.\n"
            TIMEOUT 5
            ogin:--ogin: pppuser
            TIMEOUT 20
            ABORT 'ogin incorrect'
            ssword: \qmypassword
            "% " \c
            SAY "Logged in.  Starting PPP on peer system.\n" 
            ABORT 'not found'
            "" "exec pppd"
            ~ \c

    The script contains instructions for calling a Solaris dial-in server that requires a login sequence. For a description of each instruction, refer to Basic Chat Script Enhanced for a UNIX-Style Login. For complete details about creating a chat script, read the section Defining the Conversation on the Dial-up Link.


    Note - You do not invoke the chat script directly. Rather, you use the file name of the chat script as an argument to the chat command, which invokes the script.


    If a peer runs Solaris or a similar operating system, consider using the previous chat script as a template for your dial-out machines.

How to Define the Connection With an Individual Peer

  1. Become superuser on the dial-out machine or assume an equivalent role.

    Roles contain authorizations and privileged commands. For more information about roles, see Configuring RBAC (Task Map) in System Administration Guide: Security Services. To configure a role with the Primary Administrator profile, see Chapter 2, Working With the Solaris Management Console (Tasks), in System Administration Guide: Basic Administration.

  2. Update DNS databases by creating the following /etc/resolv.conf file:
    domain bigcompany.com
    nameserver 10.10.111.15
    nameserver 10.10.130.8
    domain bigcompany.com

    Specifies that the peer's DNS domain is bigcompany.com.

    nameserver 10.10.111.15 and nameserver 10.10.130.8

    Lists the IP addresses of name servers at bigcompany.com.

  3. Edit the /etc/nsswitch.conf file to have the DNS database searched first for host information.
    hosts:      dns [NOTFOUND=return] files 
  4. Create a file for the peer.

    For example, you would create the following file to define the dial-in server myserver:

    # cat /etc/ppp/peers/myserver
    /dev/cua/a
    57600
    noipdefault
    defaultroute
    idle 120
    noauth
    connect "chat -U 'mypassword' -T 1-123-555-1213 -f /etc/ppp/mychat"
    /dev/cua/a

    Specifies that the device /dev/cua/a should be used as the serial interface for calls to myserver.

    57600

    Defines the speed of the link.

    noipdefault

    Specifies that for transactions with peer myserver, the dial-out machine initially has an IP address of 0.0.0.0. myserver assigns an IP address to the dial-out machine for every dial-up session.

    idle 120

    Indicates that the link must time out after an idle period of 120 seconds.

    noauth

    Specifies that the peer myserver does not need to provide authentication credentials when negotiating the connection with the dial-out machine.

    connect "chat -U 'mypassword' -T 1-123-555-1213 -f /etc/ppp/mychat"

    Specifies the connect option and its arguments, including the phone number of the peer, and the chat script /etc/ppp/mychat with calling instructions.

See Also

The following list provides references to related information.

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  Published under the terms fo the Public Documentation License Version 1.01. Design by Interspire