pgsql_table - Postfix PostgreSQL client configuration
postmap -q "string" pgsql:/etc/postfix/filename
postmap -q - pgsql:/etc/postfix/filename <inputfile
The Postfix mail system uses optional tables for address
rewriting or mail routing. These tables are usually in dbm
or db format.
Alternatively, lookup tables can be specified as Post-
greSQL databases. In order to use PostgreSQL lookups,
define a PostgreSQL source as a lookup table in main.cf,
alias_maps = pgsql:/etc/pgsql-aliases.cf
The file /etc/postfix/pgsql-aliases.cf has the same format
as the Postfix main.cf file, and can specify the parame-
ters described below.
For compatibility with other Postfix lookup tables, Post-
greSQL parameters can also be defined in main.cf. In
order to do that, specify as PostgreSQL source a name that
doesn't begin with a slash or a dot. The PostgreSQL
parameters will then be accessible as the name you've
given the source in its definition, an underscore, and the
name of the parameter. For example, if the map is speci-
fied as "pgsql:pgsqlname", the parameter "hosts" below
would be defined in main.cf as "pgsqlname_hosts".
Note: with this form, the passwords for the PostgreSQL
sources are written in main.cf, which is normally world-
readable. Support for this form will be removed in a
future Postfix version.
Postfix 2.2 has enhanced query interfaces for MySQL and
PostgreSQL, these include features previously available
only in the Postfix LDAP client. In the new interface the
SQL query is specified via a single query parameter
(described in more detail below). In Postfix 2.1 the
parameter precedence was, from highest to lowest,
select_function, query and finally select_field, ...
With Postfix 2.2 the query parameter has highest prece-
dence, and is used in preference to the still supported,
but slated to be phased out, select_function,
select_field, table, where_field and additional_conditions
parameters. To migrate to the new interface set:
query = SELECT select_function('%s')
or in the absence of selection_function, the lower prece-
query = SELECT select_field
WHERE where_field = '%s'
Use the value, not the name, of each legacy parameter.
Note that the additional_conditions parameter is optional
and if not empty, will always start with AND.
When using SQL to store lists such as $mynetworks, $mydes-
tination, $relay_domains, $local_recipient_maps, etc., it
is important to understand that the table must store each
list member as a separate key. The table lookup verifies
the *existence* of the key. See "Postfix lists versus
tables" in the DATABASE_README document for a discussion.
Do NOT create tables that return the full list of domains
in $mydestination or $relay_domains etc., or IP addresses
DO create tables with each matching item as a key and with
an arbitrary value. With SQL databases it is not uncommon
to return the key itself or a constant value.
hosts The hosts that Postfix will try to connect to and
query from. Specify unix: for UNIX-domain sockets,
inet: for TCP connections (default). Example:
hosts = host1.some.domain host2.some.domain
hosts = unix:/file/name
The hosts are tried in random order, with all con-
nections over UNIX domain sockets being tried
before those over TCP. The connections are auto-
matically closed after being idle for about 1
minute, and are re-opened as necessary.
NOTE: the unix: and inet: prefixes are accepted for
backwards compatibility reasons, but are actually
ignored. The PostgreSQL client library will always
try to connect to an UNIX socket if the name starts
with a slash, and will try a TCP connection other-
The user name and password to log into the pgsql
user = someone
password = some_password
dbname The database name on the servers. Example:
dbname = customer_database
query The SQL query template used to search the database,
where %s is a substitute for the address Postfix is
trying to resolve, e.g.
query = SELECT replacement FROM aliases WHERE
mailbox = '%s'
This parameter supports the following '%' expan-
%% This is replaced by a literal '%' character.
(Postfix 2.2 and later)
%s This is replaced by the input key. SQL
quoting is used to make sure that the input
key does not add unexpected metacharacters.
%u When the input key is an address of the form
user@domain, %u is replaced by the SQL
quoted local part of the address. Other-
wise, %u is replaced by the entire search
string. If the localpart is empty, the
query is suppressed and returns no results.
%d When the input key is an address of the form
user@domain, %d is replaced by the SQL
quoted domain part of the address. Other-
wise, the query is suppressed and returns no
%[SUD] The upper-case equivalents of the above
expansions behave in the query parameter
identically to their lower-case counter-
parts. With the result_format parameter
(see below), they expand the input key
rather than the result value.
The above %S, %U and %D expansions are
available with Postfix 2.2 and later
%[1-9] The patterns %1, %2, ... %9 are replaced by
the corresponding most significant component
of the input key's domain. If the input key
is [email protected], then %1 is com, %2
is example and %3 is mail. If the input key
is unqualified or does not have enough
domain components to satisfy all the speci-
fied patterns, the query is suppressed and
returns no results.
The above %1, ... %9 expansions are avail-
able with Postfix 2.2 and later
The domain parameter described below limits the
input keys to addresses in matching domains. When
the domain parameter is non-empty, SQL queries for
unqualified addresses or addresses in non-matching
domains are suppressed and return no results.
The precedence of this parameter has changed with
Postfix 2.2, in prior releases the precedence was,
from highest to lowest, select_function, query,
With Postfix 2.2 the query parameter has highest
precedence, see COMPATIBILITY above.
NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the query parameter.
result_format (default: %s)
Format template applied to result attributes. Most
commonly used to append (or prepend) text to the
result. This parameter supports the following '%'
%% This is replaced by a literal '%' character.
%s This is replaced by the value of the result
attribute. When result is empty it is
%u When the result attribute value is an
address of the form user@domain, %u is
replaced by the local part of the address.
When the result has an empty localpart it is
%d When a result attribute value is an address
of the form user@domain, %d is replaced by
the domain part of the attribute value. When
the result is unqualified it is skipped.
The upper-case and decimal digit expansions
interpolate the parts of the input key
rather than the result. Their behavior is
identical to that described with query, and
in fact because the input key is known in
advance, queries whose key does not contain
all the information specified in the result
template are suppressed and return no
For example, using "result_format = smtp:[%s]"
allows one to use a mailHost attribute as the basis
of a transport(5) table. After applying the result
format, multiple values are concatenated as comma
separated strings. The expansion_limit and parame-
ter explained below allows one to restrict the num-
ber of values in the result, which is especially
useful for maps that must return at most one value.
The default value %s specifies that each result
value should be used as is.
This parameter is available with Postfix 2.2 and
NOTE: DO NOT put quotes around the result format!
domain (default: no domain list)
This is a list of domain names, paths to files, or
dictionaries. When specified, only fully qualified
search keys with a *non-empty* localpart and a
matching domain are eligible for lookup: 'user'
lookups, bare domain lookups and "@domain" lookups
are not performed. This can significantly reduce
the query load on the PostgreSQL server.
domain = postfix.org, hash:/etc/postfix/search-
It is best not to use SQL to store the domains eli-
gible for SQL lookups.
This parameter is available with Postfix 2.2 and
NOTE: DO NOT define this parameter for local(8)
aliases, because the input keys are always unquali-
expansion_limit (default: 0)
A limit on the total number of result elements
returned (as a comma separated list) by a lookup
against the map. A setting of zero disables the
limit. Lookups fail with a temporary error if the
limit is exceeded. Setting the limit to 1 ensures
that lookups do not return multiple values.
Pre-Postfix 2.2 legacy interfaces:
This parameter specifies a database function name.
select_function = my_lookup_user_alias
This is equivalent to:
query = SELECT my_lookup_user_alias('%s')
This parameter overrides the legacy table-related
fields (described below). With Postfix versions
prior to 2.2, it also overrides the query parame-
ter. Starting with Postfix 2.2, the query parameter
has highest precedence, and this parameter is dep-
recated. Please migrate to the new query interface
as this interface is slated to be phased out.
The following parameters (with lower precedence than the
select_function interface described above) can be used to
build the SQL select statement as follows:
WHERE [where_field] = '%s'
The specifier %s is replaced with each lookup by the
lookup key and is escaped so if it contains single quotes
or other odd characters, it will not cause a parse error,
or worse, a security problem.
Starting with Postfix 2.2, this interface is obsoleted by
the more general query interface described above. If
higher precedence the query or select_function parameters
described above are defined, these parameters are ignored.
Please migrate to the new query interface as this inter-
face is slated to be phased out.
The SQL "select" parameter. Example:
select_field = forw_addr
table The SQL "select .. from" table name. Example:
table = mxaliases
The SQL "select .. where" parameter. Example:
where_field = alias
Additional conditions to the SQL query. Example:
additional_conditions = AND status = 'paid'
postmap(1), Postfix lookup table manager
postconf(5), configuration parameters
ldap_table(5), LDAP lookup tables
mysql_table(5), MySQL lookup tables
DATABASE_README, Postfix lookup table overview
PGSQL_README, Postfix PostgreSQL client guide
The Secure Mailer license must be distributed with this
PgSQL support was introduced with Postfix version 2.1.
Based on the MySQL client by:
Scott Cotton, Joshua Marcus
IC Group, Inc.
Ported to PostgreSQL by:
Further enhanced by:
Institute of Mathematics of the Romanian Academy
P.O. BOX 1-764
RO-014700 Bucharest, ROMANIA