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Databases - Practical PostgreSQL
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Chapter 8. Authentication and Encryption

This chapter documents the fundamental concepts involved with authenticating and encrypting a client session to the PostgreSQL server. This includes how to correctly configure the pg_hba.conf file for a variety of authentication schemes, as well as a few common ways to encrypt your client connections.

Client Authentication

Client authentication is a central feature to PostgreSQL. Without it, you would either have to sacrifice remote connectivity, or blindly allow anyone to connect to your database and retrieve, or even modify your data. PostgreSQL has several different types of client authentication at its disposal. As the site administrator, you need to decide which one is best for your system.

As of PostgreSQL 7.1.x, host-based client access is specified in the pg_hba.conf file. The rights and restrictions described in this file should not be confused with a PostgreSQL user's rights to objects within the database. The pg_hba.conf file allows you to set the type of host-based authentication to be used. This authentication is performed before PostgreSQL establishes a connection to the intended database, where user rights would be relevant.

Note: The pg_hba.conf is located in the PostgreSQL data directory (e.g., /usr/local/pgsql/data  ), and is installed automatically upon the execution of the initdb command when PostgreSQL is installed.

PostgreSQL's host-based authentication is flexible, featuring a wide variety of configurable options. You may restrict database access to specific hosts, as well as allow access to a range of IP addresses by using netmasks. Each configured host has its own host record , which is a single line in the pg_hba.conf file.

With these host records, you may specify access either to a particular database or all databases. Furthermore, you may require a user from a specified host to authenticate via the PostgreSQL users table after qualifying for a connection.

Put simply, the pg_hba.conf file allows you to determine who is allowed to connect to which databases from what machines, and to what degree they must prove their authenticity to gain access.

Warning

Through remote password-based authentication, passwords may be transmitted in clear text depending on whether or not you are using encrypted sessions. Be sure that you understand how your application is communicating with PostgreSQL before allowing users to remotely connect to a PostgreSQL database.

Databases - Practical PostgreSQL
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