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The Art of Unix Programming
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Unix Programming - Data-Driven Programming - Case Study: Statistical Spam Filtering

Case Study: Statistical Spam Filtering

One interesting case of data-driven programming is statistical learning algorithms for detecting spam (unsolicited bulk email). A whole class of mail filter programs (those easily findable by Web search include popfile, spambayes, and bogofilter) use a database of word correlations to replace the elaborate pattern-matching conditional logic of pattern-matching spam filters.

Programs like these became common on the Internet very rapidly following Paul Graham's landmark paper A Plan for Spam [Graham] in 2002. While the explosion was triggered by the increasing cost of the pattern-matching arms race, the statistical-filtering idea was adopted first and fastest by Unix shops. In part, this was certainly because almost all the Internet service providers (who are most burdened by spam, and thus had most incentive to adopt effective new techniques) are Unix shops — but undoubtedly the harmony with some traditional themes in Unix software design helped as well.

Conventional spam filters require that a system administrator, or some other responsible party, maintain information on patterns of text found in spam — names of sites that emit nothing but spam, come-on phrases often used by pornography sites or Internet scam artists, and the like. In his paper, Graham noted accurately that computer programmers like the idea of pattern-matching filters, and sometimes have difficulty seeing past that approach, because it offers them so many opportunities to be clever.

Statistical spam filters, on the other hand, work by collecting feedback about what the user judges to be spam versus nonspam. That feedback is processed into databases of statistical correlation coefficients or weights connecting words or phrases to the user's spam/nonspam classification. The most popular algorithms use minor variants of Bayes's Theorem on conditional probabilities, but other techniques (including various sorts of polynomial hashing) are also employed.

In all these programs, the correlation check is a relatively trivial mathematical formula. The weights fed into the formula along with the message being checked serve as implicit control structure for the filtering algorithm.

The problem with conventional pattern-matching spam filters is that they are brittle. Spammers are constantly gaming against the filter-rule databases, forcing the filter maintainers to constantly reprogram their filters to stay ahead in the arms race. Statistical spam filters generate their own filter rules from the user feedback.

In fact, experience with statistical filters seems to show that the particular learning algorithm used is far less important than the quality of the spam and nonspam data sets from which the learning algorithm computes its weights. So the results of statistical filters really are driven more by the shape of the data than by the algorithm.

A Plan for Spam was something of a bombshell because its author argued convincingly that a simple, even crude, statistical approach gave a lower rate of nonspam being erroneously classified as spam than either elaborate pattern-matching techniques or the human eyeball could manage. For Unix programmers, seeing past the lure of clever pattern-matching was far easier than in other programming cultures without as strong an attachment to “Keep It Simple, Stupid!”


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The Art of Unix Programming
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