                On-line Guides All Guides eBook Store iOS / Android Linux for Beginners Office Productivity Linux Installation Linux Security Linux Utilities Linux Virtualization Linux Kernel System/Network Admin Programming Scripting Languages Development Tools Web Development GUI Toolkits/Desktop Databases Mail Systems openSolaris Eclipse Documentation Techotopia.com Virtuatopia.com How To Guides Virtualization General System Admin Linux Security Linux Filesystems Web Servers Graphics & Desktop PC Hardware Windows Problem Solutions Privacy Policy  [ < ] [ > ] [ << ] [ Up ] [ >> ] [Top] [Contents] [Index] [ ? ]

### 2.2.1 Numeric Literals

Numeric literals are simply constant numbers. Numeric literals are much easier to comprehend and use than string literals. There are only a few basic ways to express numeric literals.

The numeric literal representations that Perl users are similar to those used in other languages such as C, Ada, and Pascal. The following are a few common examples:

```42;         # @cc{The number 42}
12.5;       # @cc{A floating point number, twelve and a half}
101873.000; # @cc{101,873}
.005        # @cc{five thousandths}
5E-3;       # @cc{same number as previous line}
23e-100;    # @cc{23 times 10 to the power of -100 (very small)}
2.3E-99;    # @cc{The same number as the line above!}
23e6;       # @cc{23,000,000}
23_000_000; # @cc{The same number as line above}
# @cc{The underscores are for readability only}
```

As you can see, there are three basic ways to express numeric literals. The most simple way is to write an integer value, without a decimal point, such as `42`. This represents the number forty-two.

You can also write numeric literals with a decimal point. So, you can write numbers like `12.5`, to represent numbers that are not integral values. If you like, you can write something like `101873.000`, which really simply represents the integral value 101,873. Perl does not mind that you put the extra 0's on the end.

Probably the most complex method of expressing a numeric literal is using what is called exponential notation. These are numbers of the form b * 10^x , where b is some decimal number, positive or negative, and x is some integer, positive or negative. Thus, you can express very large numbers, or very small numbers that are mostly 0s (either to the right or left of the decimal point) using this notation. However, when you write such a number as a literal in Perl, you must write it in the from `bEx`, where `b` and `x` are the desired base and exponent, but `E` is the actual character, `E` (or `e`, if you prefer). The examples of `5E-3`, `23e-100`, `2.3E-99`, and `23e6` in the code above show how the exponential notation can be used.

Finally, if you write out a very large number, such as `23000000`, you can place underscores inside the number to make it more readable. (5) Thus, `23000000` is exactly the same as `23_000_000`.

 2.2.1.1 Printing Numeric Literals Using `print` with numeric literals

 [ < ] [ > ] [ << ] [ Up ] [ >> ] [Top] [Contents] [Index] [ ? ] Published under the terms of the GNU General Public License Design by Interspire