As already explained, the headers differs a little bit from ICMP type to ICMP
type. Most of the ICMP types are possible to group by their headers. Because of
this, we will discuss the basic header form first, and then look at the
specifics for each group of types that should be discussed.
All packets contain some basic values from the IP headers discussed previously
in this chapter. The headers have previously been discussed at some length,
so this is just a short listing of the headers, with a few notes about them.
Version - This should always be set to 4.
Internet Header Length - The length of the header in 32 bit words.
Total Length - Total length of the header and data portion of the
packet, counted in octets.
Identification, Flags and Fragment offsets - Ripped from the IP
Time To Live - How many hops this packet will survive.
Protocol - which version of ICMP is being used (should always be 1).
Header Checksum - See the IP explanation.
Source Address - The source address from whom the packet was sent.
This is not entirely true, since the packet can have another source address,
than that which is located on the machine in question. The ICMP types that can
have this effect will be noted if so.
Destination Address - The destination address of the packet.
There are also a couple of new headers that are used by all of the ICMP types.
The new headers are as follows, this time with a few more notes about them:
Type - The type field contains the ICMP type of the packet. This is
always different from ICMP type to type. For example ICMP Destination
Unreachable packets will have a type 3 set to it. For a complete listing of the
different ICMP types, see the ICMP types appendix. This field contains 8 bits total.
Code - All ICMP types can contain different codes as well. Some
types only have a single code, while others have several codes that they can
use. For example, the ICMP Destination Unreachable (type 3) can have at least
code 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 set. Each code has a different meaning in that context
then. For a complete listing of the different codes, see the ICMP types appendix. This field is 8
bits in length, total. We will discuss the different codes a little bit more in
detail for each type later on in this section.
Checksum - The Checksum is a 16 bit field containing a one's
complement of the ones complement of the headers starting with the ICMP type and
down. While calculating the checksum, the checksum field should be set to zero.
At this point the headers for the different packets start to look different
also. We will describe the most common ICMP Types one by one, with a brief
discussion of its headers and different codes.
I have chosen to speak about both the reply and the request of the ICMP echo
packets here since they are so closely related to each other. The first
difference is that the echo request is type 8, while echo reply is type 0. When
a host receives a type 8, it replies with a type 0.
When the reply is sent, the source and destination addresses switch places as
well. After both of those changes has been done, the checksum is recomputed, and
the reply is sent. There are only 1 code for both of these types, they are
always set to 0.
Identifier - This is set in the request packet, and echoed back in the reply, to
be able to keep different ping requests and replies together.
Sequence number - The sequence number for each host, generally this starts at 1
and is incremented by 1 for each packet.
The packets also contains a data part. Per default, the data part is generally
empty, but it can contain a userspecified amount of random data.
The first three fields seen in the image are the same as previously described.
The Destination Unreachable type has 6 basic codes that can be used, as seen
below in the list.
Code 0 - Network unreachable - Tells you if a specific network is currently
Code 1 - Host unreachable - Tells you if a specific host is currently
Code 2 - Protocol unreachable - This code tells you if a specific protocol (tcp,
udp, etc) can not be reached at the moment.
Code 3 - Port unreachable - If a port (ssh, http, ftp-data, etc) is not
reachable, you will get this message.
Code 4 - Fragmentation needed and DF set - If a packet needs to be fragmented to
be delivered, but the Do not fragment bit is set in the packet, the gateway will
return this message.
Code 5 - Source route failed - If a source route failed for some reason, this
message is returned.
Code 6 - Destination network unknown - If there is no route to a specific
network, this message is returned.
Code 7 - Destination host unknown - If there is no route to a specific host,
this message is returned.
Code 8 - Source host isolated (obsolete) - If a host is isolated, this message
should be returned. This code is obsoleted today.
Code 9 - Destination network administratively prohibited - If a network was
blocked at a gateway and your packet was unable to reach it because of this, you
should get this ICMP code back.
Code 10 - Destination host administratively prohibited - If you where unable to
reach a host because it was administratively prohibited (e.g., routing
administration), youwill get this message back.
Code 11 - Network unreachable for TOS - If a network was unreachable because of
a "bad" TOS setting in your packet, this code will be generated as a
Code 12 - Host unreachable for TOS - If your packet was unable to reach a host
because of the TOS of the packet, this is the message you get back.
Code 13 - Communication administratively prohibited by filtering - If the
packet was prohibited by some kind of filtering (e.g., firewalling), we get a
code 13 back.
Code 14 - Host precedence violation - This is sent by the first hop router to
notify a connected host, to notify the host that the used precedence is not
permitted for a specific destination/source combination.
Code 15 - Precedence cutoff in effect - The first hop router may send this
message to a host if the datagram it received had a too low precedence level set
On top of this, it also contains a small "data" part, which should be the whole
Internet header (IP header) and 64 bits of the original IP datagram. If the next
level protocol contains any ports, etc, it is assumed that the ports should be
available in the extra 64 bits.
A source quench packet can be sent to tell the originating source of a packet or
stream of packets to slow down when continuing to send data. Note that gateway
or destination host that the packets traverses can also be quiet and silently
discard the packets, instead of sending any source quench packets.
This packet contains no extra header except the data portion, which contains the
internet header plus 64 bits of the original data datagram. This is used to
match the source quench message to the correct process, which is currently
sending data through the gateway or to the destination host.
All source quench packets have their ICMP types set to 4. They have no codes
Today, there are a couple of new possible ways of notifying the sending and
receiving host that a gateway or destination host is overloaded. One way for
example is the ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification) system.
The ICMP Redirect type is sent in a single case. Consider this, you have a
network (192.168.0.0/24) with several clients and hosts on it, and two gateways.
One gateway to a 10.0.0.0/24 network, and a default gateway to the rest of the
Internet. Now consider if one of the hosts on the 192.168.0.0/24 network has no
route set to 10.0.0.0/24, but it has the default gateway set. It sends a
packet to the default gateway, which of course knows about the 10.0.0.0/24
network. The default gateway can deduce that it is faster to send the packet
directly to the 10.0.0.0/24 gateway since the packet will enter and leave the
gateway on the same interface. The default gateway will hence send out a single
ICMP Redirect packet to the host, telling it about the real gateway, and then
sending the packet on to the 10.0.0.0/24 gateway. The host will now know about
the closest 10.0.0.0/24 gateway, and hopefully use it in the future.
The main header of the Redirect type is the Gateway Internet Address field. This
field tells the host about the proper gateway, which should really be used. The
packet also contains the IP header of the original packet, and the 64 first bits
of data in the original packet, which is used to connect it to the proper
process sending the data.
The Redirect type has 4 different codes as well, these are the following.
Code 0 - Redirect for network - Only used for redirects for a whole network
(e.g., the example above).
Code 1 - Redirect for host - Only used for redirects of a specific host (e.g., a
Code 2 - Redirect for TOS and network - Only used for redirects of a specific
Type of Service and to a whole network. Used as code 0, but also based on the
Code 3 - Redirect for TOS and host - Only used for redirects of a specific
Type of Service and to a specific host. Used as code 1, but also based on the
TOS in other words.
The TTL equals 0 ICMP type is also known as Time Exceeded Message and has type
11 set to it, and has 2 ICMP codes available. If the TTL field reaches 0 during
transit through a gateway or fragment reassembly on the destination host, the
packet must be discarded. To notify the sending host of this problem, we can
send a TTL equals 0 ICMP packet. The sender can then raise the TTL of outgoing
packets to this destination if necessary.
The packet only contains the extra data portion of the packet. The data field
contains the Internet header plus 64 bits of the data of the IP packet, so that
the other end may match the packet to the proper process. As previously
mentioned, the TTL equals 0 type can have two codes.
Code 0 - TTL equals 0 during transit - This is sent to the sending host if the
original packet TTL reached 0 when it was forwarded by a gateway.
Code 1 - TTL equals 0 during reassembly - This is sent if the original packet
was fragmented, and TTL reached 0 during reassembly of the fragments. This code
should only be sent from the destination host.
The parameter problem ICMP uses type 12 and it has 2 codes that it uses as well.
Parameter problem messages are used to tell the sending host that the gateway or
receiving host had problems understanding parts of the IP headers such as
errors, or that some required options where missing.
The parameter problem type contains one special header, which is a pointer to
the field that caused the error in the original packet, if the code is 0 that
is. The following codes are available:
Code 0 - IP header bad (catchall error) - This is a catchall error message as
discussed just above. Together with the pointer, this code is used to point to
which part of the IP header contained an error.
Code 1 - Required options missing - If an IP option that is required is
missing, this code is used to tell about it.
The timestamp type is obsolete these days, but we bring it up briefly here. Both
the reply and the request has a single code (0). The request is type 13 while
the reply is type 14. The timestamp packets contains 3 32-bit timestamps
counting the milliseconds since midnight UT (Universal Time).
The first timestamp is the Originate timestamp, which contains the last time the
sender touched the packet. The receive timestamp is the time that the echoing
host first touched the packet and the transmit timestamp is the last timestamp
set just previous to sending the packet.
Each timestamp message also contains the same identifiers and sequence numbers
as the ICMP echo packets.
The information request and reply types are obsolete since there are protocols
on top of the IP protocol that can now take care of this when necessary (DHCP,
etc). The information request generates a reply from any answering host on the
network that we are attached to.
The host that wishes to receive information creates a packet with the
source address set to the network we are attached to (for example, 192.168.0.0),
and the destination network set to 0. The reply will contain information about
our numbers (netmask and ip address).
The information request is run through ICMP type 15 while the reply is sent via