Follow Techotopia on Twitter

On-line Guides
All Guides
eBook Store
iOS / Android
Linux for Beginners
Office Productivity
Linux Installation
Linux Security
Linux Utilities
Linux Virtualization
Linux Kernel
System/Network Admin
Scripting Languages
Development Tools
Web Development
GUI Toolkits/Desktop
Mail Systems
Eclipse Documentation

How To Guides
General System Admin
Linux Security
Linux Filesystems
Web Servers
Graphics & Desktop
PC Hardware
Problem Solutions
Privacy Policy




Thinking in C++
Prev Contents / Index Next

A test

Here’s the old test program for Stash rewritten for the PStash:

//: C13:PStashTest.cpp
//{L} PStash
// Test of pointer Stash
#include "PStash.h"
#include "../require.h"
#include <iostream>
#include <fstream>
#include <string>
using namespace std;

int main() {
  PStash intStash;
  // 'new' works with built-in types, too. Note
  // the "pseudo-constructor" syntax:
  for(int i = 0; i < 25; i++)
    intStash.add(new int(i));
  for(int j = 0; j < intStash.count(); j++)
    cout << "intStash[" << j << "] = "
         << *(int*)intStash[j] << endl;
  // Clean up:
  for(int k = 0; k < intStash.count(); k++)
    delete intStash.remove(k);
  ifstream in ("PStashTest.cpp");
  assure(in, "PStashTest.cpp");
  PStash stringStash;
  string line;
  while(getline(in, line))
    stringStash.add(new string(line));
  // Print out the strings:
  for(int u = 0; stringStash[u]; u++)
    cout << "stringStash[" << u << "] = "
         << *(string*)stringStash[u] << endl;
  // Clean up:
  for(int v = 0; v < stringStash.count(); v++)
    delete (string*)stringStash.remove(v);
} ///:~

As before, Stashes are created and filled with information, but this time the information is the pointers resulting from new-expressions. In the first case, note the line:

intStash.add(new int(i));

The expression new int(i) uses the pseudo-constructor form, so storage for a new int object is created on the heap, and the int is initialized to the value i.

During printing, the value returned by PStash::operator[ ] must be cast to the proper type; this is repeated for the rest of the PStash objects in the program. It’s an undesirable effect of using void pointers as the underlying representation and will be fixed in later chapters.

The second test opens the source code file and reads it one line at a time into another PStash. Each line is read into a string using getline( ), then a new string is created from line to make an independent copy of that line. If we just passed in the address of line each time, we’d get a whole bunch of pointers pointing to line, which would only contain the last line that was read from the file.

When fetching the pointers, you see the expression:


The pointer returned from operator[ ] must be cast to a string* to give it the proper type. Then the string* is dereferenced so the expression evaluates to an object, at which point the compiler sees a string object to send to cout.

The objects created on the heap must be destroyed through the use of the remove( ) statement or else you’ll get a message at runtime telling you that you haven’t completely cleaned up the objects in the PStash. Notice that in the case of the int pointers, no cast is necessary because there’s no destructor for an int and all we need is memory release:

delete intStash.remove(k);

However, for the string pointers, if you forget to do the cast you’ll have another (quiet) memory leak, so the cast is essential:

delete (string*)stringStash.remove(k);

Some of these issues (but not all) can be removed using templates (which you’ll learn about in Chapter 16).

Thinking in C++
Prev Contents / Index Next

   Reproduced courtesy of Bruce Eckel, MindView, Inc. Design by Interspire