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Thinking in C++ Vol 2 - Practical Programming
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The most trivial of these is the messenger,[136] which packages information into an object which is passed around, instead of passing all the pieces around separately. Note that without the messenger, the code for translate( ) would be much more confusing to read:

//: C10:MessengerDemo.cpp
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
using namespace std;
class Point { // A messenger
int x, y, z; // Since it's just a carrier
Point(int xi, int yi, int zi) : x(xi), y(yi), z(zi) {}
Point(const Point& p) : x(p.x), y(p.y), z(p.z) {}
Point& operator=(const Point& rhs) {
x = rhs.x;
y = rhs.y;
z = rhs.z;
return *this;
friend ostream&
operator<<(ostream& os, const Point& p) {
return os << "x=" << p.x << " y=" << p.y
<< " z=" << p.z;
class Vector { // Mathematical vector
int magnitude, direction;
Vector(int m, int d) : magnitude(m), direction(d) {}
class Space {
static Point translate(Point p, Vector v) {
// Copy-constructor prevents modifying the original.
// A dummy calculation:
p.x += v.magnitude + v.direction;
p.y += v.magnitude + v.direction;
p.z += v.magnitude + v.direction;
return p;
int main() {
Point p1(1, 2, 3);
Point p2 = Space::translate(p1, Vector(11, 47));
cout << "p1: " << p1 << " p2: " << p2 << endl;
} ///:~

The code here is trivialized to prevent distractions.

Since the goal of a messenger is only to carry data, that data is made public for easy access. However, you may also have reasons to make the fields private.

Thinking in C++ Vol 2 - Practical Programming
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   Reproduced courtesy of Bruce Eckel, MindView, Inc. Design by Interspire