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Thinking in C++ Vol 2 - Practical Programming
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Using the template keyword as a hint

Just as the typename keyword helps the compiler when a type identifier is not expected, there is also a potential difficulty with tokens that are not identifiers, such as the < and > characters. Sometimes these represent the less-than or greater-than symbols, and sometimes they delimit template parameter lists. As an example, we ll once more use the bitset class:

//: C05:DotTemplate.cpp
// Illustrate the .template construct.
#include <bitset>
#include <cstddef>
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
using namespace std;
template<class charT, size_t N>
basic_string<charT> bitsetToString(const bitset<N>& bs) {
return bs. template to_string<charT, char_traits<charT>,
allocator<charT> >();
int main() {
bitset<10> bs;
cout << bs << endl; // 0000100010
string s = bitsetToString<char>(bs);
cout << s << endl; // 0000100010
} ///:~

The bitset class supports conversion to string object via its to_string member function. To support multiple string classes, to_string is itself a template, following the pattern established by the basic_string template discussed in Chapter 3. The declaration of to_string inside of bitset looks like this:

template<class charT, class traits, class Allocator>
basic_string<charT, traits, Allocator> to_string() const;

Our bitsetToString( ) function template above requests different types of string representations of a bitset. To get a wide string, for instance, you change the call to the following:

wstring s = bitsetToString<wchar_t>(bs);

Note that basic_string uses default template arguments, so we don t need to repeat the char_traits and allocator arguments in the return value. Unfortunately, bitset::to_string does not use default arguments. Using bitsetToString<char>( bs) is more convenient than typing a fully-qualified call to bs.template to_string<char, char_traits, allocator<char> >( ) every time.

The return statement in bitsetToString( ) contains the template keyword in an odd place right after the dot operator applied to the bitset object bs. This is because when the template is parsed, the < character after the to_string token would be interpreted as a less-than operation instead of the beginning of a template argument list. The template keyword used in this context tells the compiler that what follows is the name of a template, causing the < character to be interpreted correctly. The same reasoning applies to the -> and ::operators when applied to templates. As with the typename keyword, this template disambiguation technique can only be used within template code.[52]

Thinking in C++ Vol 2 - Practical Programming
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   Reproduced courtesy of Bruce Eckel, MindView, Inc. Design by Interspire