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The Art of Unix Programming
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Unix Programming - make: Automating Your Recipes - Generating Makefiles

Generating Makefiles

One of the subtle advantages of Unix make over the dependency databases built into many IDEs is that makefiles are simple text files — files that can be generated by programs.

In the mid-1980s it was fairly common for large Unix program distributions to include elaborate custom shellscripts that would probe their environment and use the information they gathered to construct custom makefiles. These custom configurators reached absurd sizes. I wrote one once that was 3000 lines of shell, about twice as large as any single module in the program it was configuring — and this was not unusual.

The community eventually said “Enough!” and various people set out to write tools that would automate away part or all of the process of maintaining makefiles. These tools generally tried to address two issues:

One issue is portability . Makefile generators are commonly built to run on many different hardware platforms and Unix variants. They generally try to deduce things about the local system (including everything from machine word size up to which tools, languages, service libraries, and even document formatters it has available). They then try to use those deductions to write makefiles that exploit the local system's facilities and compensate for its quirks.

The other issue is dependency derivation . It's possible to deduce a great deal about the dependencies of a collection of C sources by analyzing the sources themselves (especially by looking at what include files they use and share). Many makefile generators do this in order to mechanically generate make dependencies.

Each different makefile generator tackles these objectives in a slightly different way. Probably a dozen or more generators have been attempted, but most proved inadequate or too difficult to drive or both, and only a few are still in live use. We'll survey the major ones here. All are available as open-source software on the Internet.

autoconf was written by people who had seen and rejected the Imake approach. It generates per-project configure shellscripts that are like the old-fashioned custom script configurators. These configure scripts can generate makefiles (among other things).

Autoconf is focused on portability and does no built-in dependency derivation at all. Although it is probably as complex as Imake, it is much more flexible and easier to extend. Rather than relying on a per-system database of rules, it generates configure shell code that goes out and searches your system for things.

Each configure shellscript is built from a per-project template that you have to write, called Once generated, though, the configure script will be self-contained and can configure your project on systems that don't carry autoconf(1) itself.

The autoconf approach to makefile generation is like imake's in that you start by writing a makefile template for your project. But autoconf's files are basically just makefiles with placeholders in them for simple text substitution; there's no second notation to learn. If you want dependency derivation, you must take explicit steps to call makedepend(1) or some similar tool — or use automake(1).

autoconf is documented by an on-line manual in the GNU info format. The source scripts of autoconf are available from the FSF archive site, but are also preinstalled on many Unix and Linux versions. You should be able to browse this manual through your Emacs's help system.

Despite its lack of direct support for dependency derivation, and despite its generally ad-hoc approach, in mid-2003 autoconf is clearly the most popular of the makefile generators, and has been for some years. It has eclipsed Imake and driven at least one major competitor (metaconfig) out of use.

A reference, GNU Autoconf, Automake and Libtool is available [Vaughan]. We'll have more to say about autoconf, from a slightly different angle, in Chapter17.

[137] A unit test is test code attached to a module to verify correct performance. Use of the term ‘unit test’ suggests that the test is written concurrently with the code by the developer of the code, and implies a discipline in which module releases aren't considered complete until they have attached test code. The term and the concept originated in the “Extreme Programming” methodology popularized by Kent Beck, but has gained wide acceptance among Unix programmers since about 2001.

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The Art of Unix Programming
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