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The Art of Unix Programming
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Unix Programming - Speaking of Complexity - Essential, Optional, and Accidental Complexity

Essential, Optional, and Accidental Complexity

In an ideal world, Unix programmers would craft only small, perfect gems of software, each minimal, each elegant, each perfect. But one of the unfortunate things about reality is that it often poses complex problems that demand complex solutions. You can't control a jetliner with an elegant ten-line procedure. There are too many pieces of equipment, too many channels and interfaces, too many different processors — too many different subsystems defined by independently operating human beings who often don't agree even on fundamental conventions. Even if you are successful at making all the individual software parts of an avionics system elegant, integration is likely to produce a large, complex, and grubby body of code with (one hopes) the single virtue that it will actually work .

Jetliners have essential complexity. There is a rather sharp point past which it's not possible to trade away features for simplicity, because the plane has to stay in the air. Because of that very fact, avionics control systems do not tend to spawn religious wars about complexity — and Unix programmers tend to stay away from them.

Jetliners are certainly not immune from system failures due to overcomplexity. But the design issues are easier to discern and think about in software for which the requirements are more flexible, in which it is easy to trade off between anticipated features and complexity. (Here, and in the rest of this chapter, we will use ‘feature’ in a very general sense that includes things like performance gains or overall degree of interface polish.)

To sharpen our vision, we need to begin by noticing a difference between accidental complexity and optional complexity.[115] Accidental complexity happens because someone didn't find the simplest way to implement a specified set of features. Accidental complexity can be eliminated by good design, or good redesign. Optional complexity, on the other hand, is tied to some desirable feature. Optional complexity can be eliminated only by changing the project's objectives.

When we fail to distinguish between optional and accidental complexity, design debates become seriously confused. Questions about what a project's objectives are get confused with questions about the aesthetics of simplicity, and whether people have been sufficiently clever.

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The Art of Unix Programming
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