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The Art of Unix Programming
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Unix Programming - Applying Minilanguages - Case Study: m4

Case Study: m4

The m4(1) macro processor interprets a declarative minilanguage for describing transformations of text. An m4 program is a set of macros that specifies ways to expand text strings into other strings. Applying those declarations to an input text with m4 performs macro expansion and yields an output text. (The C preprocessor performs similar services for C compilers, though in a rather different style.)

Example8.2 shows an m4 macro that directs m4 to expand each occurrence of the string "OS" in its input into the string "operating system" on output. This is a trivial example; m4 supports macros with arguments that can be used to do more than transform one fixed string into another. Typing info m4 at your shell prompt will probably display on-line documentation for this language.

The m4 macro language supports conditionals and recursion. The combination can be used to implement loops, and this was intended; m4 is deliberately Turing-complete. But actually trying to use m4 as a general-purpose language would be deeply perverse.

The m4 macro processor is usually employed as a preprocessor for minilanguages that lack a built-in notion of named procedures or a built-in file-inclusion feature. It's an easy way to extend the syntax of the base language so the combination with m4 supports both these features.

One well-known use of m4 has been to clean up (or at least effectively hide) another minilanguage design that was called out as a bad example earlier in this chapter. Most system administrators now generate their sendmail.cf configuration files using an m4 macro package supplied with the sendmail distribution. The macros start from feature names (or name/value pairs) and generate the corresponding (much uglier) strings in the sendmail configuration language.

Use m4 with caution, however. Unix experience has taught minilanguage designers to be wary of macro expansion,[83] for reasons we'll discuss later in the chapter.


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The Art of Unix Programming
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