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Solaris Trusted Extensions Administrator's Procedures
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Managing Zones (Task Map)

The following task map describes zone management tasks that are specific to Trusted Extensions. The map also points to common procedures that are performed in Trusted Extensions just as they are performed on a Solaris system.

Task

Description

For Instructions

View all zones.

At any label, views the zones that are dominated by the current zone.

How to Display Ready or Running Zones

View mounted directories.

At any label, views the directories that are dominated by the current label.

How to Display the Labels of Mounted Files

Enable regular users to view an /etc file.

Loopback mounts a directory or file from the global zone that is not visible by default in a labeled zone.

How to Loopback Mount a File That Is Usually Not Visible in a Labeled Zone

Prevent regular users from viewing a lower-level home directory from a higher label.

By default, lower-level directories are visible from higher-level zones. When you disable the mounting of one lower-level zone, you disable all mounts of lower-level zones.

How to Disable the Mounting of Lower-Level Files

Configure a zone to enable the changing of the labels on files.

Labeled zones have limited privileges. By default, labeled zones do not have the privilege that enables an authorized user to relabel a file. You modify the zone configuration to add the privilege.

How to Enable Files to be Relabeled From a Labeled Zone

Move a file or directory into or out of a labeled zone.

Changes a file or directory's level of security by changing its label.

How to Move Files Between Labels in Trusted CDE in Solaris Trusted Extensions User’s Guide

Attach a ZFS dataset to a labeled zone and share it.

Mounts a ZFS dataset with read/write permissions in a labeled zone and shares the dataset read-only with a higher zone.

How to Share a ZFS Dataset From a Labeled Zone.

Configure a new zone.

Creates a zone at a label that is not currently being used to label a zone on this system.

See Name and Label the Zone.

Then, follow the procedure that the initial setup team used to create the other zones. For the steps, see Creating Labeled Zones.

Create a multilevel port for an application.

Multilevel ports are useful for programs that require a multilevel feed into a labeled zone.

How to Configure a Multilevel Port for NFSv3 Over udp

How to Create a Multilevel Port for a Zone

Troubleshoot NFS mount and access problems.

Debugs general access issues for mounts and possibly for zones.

How to Troubleshoot Mount Failures in Trusted Extensions

Remove a labeled zone.

Completely removes a labeled zone from the system.

How to Remove a Non-Global Zone in System Administration Guide: Virtualization Using the Solaris Operating System

How to Display Ready or Running Zones

This procedure creates a shell script that displays the labels of the current zone and all zones that the current zone dominates.

Before You Begin

You must be in the System Administrator role in the global zone.

  1. Use the trusted editor to create the getzonelabels script.

    For details, see How to Edit Administrative Files in Trusted Extensions.

    Provide the pathname to the script, such as /usr/local/scripts/getzonelabels.

  2. Add the following content, and save the file:
    #!/bin/sh
    #
    echo "NAME\t\tSTATUS\t\tLABEL"
    echo "====\t\t======\t\t====="
    myzone=`zonename`
    for i in `/usr/sbin/zoneadm list -p` ; do
            zone=`echo $i | cut -d ":" -f2`
            status=`echo $i | cut -d ":" -f3`
            path=`echo $i | cut -d ":" -f4`
            if [ $zone != global ]; then
                    if [ $myzone = global ]; then
                            path=$path/root/tmp
                    else
                            path=$path/export/home
                    fi
            fi
            label=`/usr/bin/getlabel -s $path |cut -d ":" -f2-9`
            if [ `echo $zone|wc -m` -lt 8 ]; then
                    echo "$zone\t\t$status\t$label"
            else
                    echo "$zone\t$status\t$label"
            fi
    done
  3. Test the script in the global zone.
    # getzonelabels
    NAME            STATUS          LABEL
    ====            ======          =====
    global          running         ADMIN_HIGH
    needtoknow      running         CONFIDENTIAL : NEED TO KNOW
    restricted      ready           CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
    internal        running         CONFIDENTIAL : INTERNAL
    public          running         PUBLIC

    When run from the global zone, the script displays the labels of all ready or running zones. Here is the global zone output for the zones that were created from the default label_encodings file:

Example 16-1 Displaying the Labels of All Ready or Running Zones

In the following example, a user runs the getzonelabels script in the internal zone.

# getzonelabels
NAME            STATUS          LABEL
====            ======          =====
internal        running         CONFIDENTIAL : INTERNAL
public          running         PUBLIC

How to Display the Labels of Mounted Files

This procedure creates a shell script that displays the mounted file systems of the current zone. When run from the global zone, the script displays the labels of all mounted file systems in every zone.

Before You Begin

You must be in the System Administrator role in the global zone.

  1. Use the trusted editor to create the getmounts script.

    For details, see How to Edit Administrative Files in Trusted Extensions.

    Provide the pathname to the script, such as /usr/local/scripts/getmounts.

  2. Add the following content and save the file:
    #!/bin/sh
    #
    for i in `/usr/sbin/mount -p | cut -d " " -f3` ; do
            /usr/bin/getlabel $i
    done
  3. Test the script in the global zone.
    # /usr/local/scripts/getmounts
    /:      ADMIN_LOW
    /dev:   ADMIN_LOW
    /kernel:        ADMIN_LOW
    /lib:   ADMIN_LOW
    /opt:   ADMIN_LOW
    /platform:      ADMIN_LOW
    /sbin:  ADMIN_LOW
    /usr:   ADMIN_LOW
    /var/tsol/doors:        ADMIN_LOW
    /zone/needtoknow/export/home:   CONFIDENTIAL : NEED TO KNOW
    /zone/internal/export/home:     CONFIDENTIAL : INTERNAL USE ONLY
    /zone/restricted/export/home:   CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
    /proc:  ADMIN_LOW
    /system/contract:       ADMIN_LOW
    /etc/svc/volatile:      ADMIN_LOW
    /etc/mnttab:    ADMIN_LOW
    /dev/fd:        ADMIN_LOW
    /tmp:           ADMIN_LOW
    /var/run:       ADMIN_LOW
    /zone/public/export/home:  PUBLIC
    /root:          ADMIN_LOW
Example 16-2 Displaying the Labels of File Systems in the restricted Zone

When run from a labeled zone by a regular user, the getmounts script displays the labels of all the mounted file systems in that zone. On a system where zones are created for every label in the default label_encodings file, the following is the output from the restricted zone:

# /usr/local/scripts/getmounts
/:      CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
/dev:   CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
/kernel:        ADMIN_LOW
/lib:   ADMIN_LOW
/opt:   ADMIN_LOW
/platform:      ADMIN_LOW
/sbin:  ADMIN_LOW
/usr:   ADMIN_LOW
/var/tsol/doors:        ADMIN_LOW
/zone/needtoknow/export/home:   CONFIDENTIAL : NEED TO KNOW
/zone/internal/export/home:     CONFIDENTIAL : INTERNAL USE ONLY
/proc:  CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
/system/contract:       CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
/etc/svc/volatile:      CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
/etc/mnttab:    CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
/dev/fd:        CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
/tmp:   CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
/var/run:       CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED
/zone/public/export/home:       PUBLIC
/home/gfaden:   CONFIDENTIAL : RESTRICTED

How to Loopback Mount a File That Is Usually Not Visible in a Labeled Zone

This procedure enables a user in a specified labeled zone to view files that are not exported from the global zone by default.

Before You Begin

You must be in the System Administrator role in the global zone.

  1. Halt the zone whose configuration you want to change.
    # zoneadm -z zone-name halt
  2. Loopback mount a file or directory.

    For example, enable ordinary users to view a file in the /etc directory.

    # zonecfg -z zone-name
     add filesystem
     set special=/etc/filename
     set directory=/etc/filename
     set type=lofs
     add options [ro,nodevices,nosetuid]
     end
     exit

    Note - Certain files are not used by the system, so that loopback mounting them has no effect. For example, the /etc/dfs/dfstab file in a labeled zone is not checked by Trusted Extensions software. For more information, see Sharing Files From a Labeled Zone.


  3. Start the zone.
    # zoneadm -z zone-name boot
Example 16-3 Loopback Mounting the /etc/passwd file

In this example, the security administrator wants to enable testers and programmers to check that their local passwords are set. After the sandbox zone is halted, it is configured to loopback mount the passwd file. Then, the zone is restarted.

# zoneadm -z sandbox halt
# zonecfg -z sandbox add filesystem set special=/etc/passwd set directory=/etc/passwd set type=lofs add options [ro,nodevices,nosetuid] end exit
# zoneadm -z sandbox boot

How to Disable the Mounting of Lower-Level Files

By default, users can view lower-level files. Remove the net_mac_aware privilege to prevent the viewing of all lower-level files from a particular zone. For a description of the net_mac_aware privilege, see the privileges(5) man page.

Before You Begin

You must be in the System Administrator role in the global zone.

  1. Halt the zone whose configuration you want to change.
    # zoneadm -z zone-name halt
  2. Configure the zone to prevent the viewing of lower-level files.

    Remove the net_mac_aware privilege from the zone.

    # zonecfg -z zone-name
     set limitpriv=default,!net_mac_aware
     exit
  3. Restart the zone.
    # zoneadm -z zone-name boot
Example 16-4 Preventing Users From Viewing Lower-Level Files

In this example, the security administrator wants to prevent users on one system from being confused. Therefore, users can only view files at the label at which the users are working. So, the security administrator prevents the viewing of all lower-level files. On this system, users cannot see publicly available files unless they are working at the PUBLIC label. Also, users can only NFS mount files at the label of the zones.

# zoneadm -z restricted halt
# zonecfg -z restricted set limitpriv=default,!net_mac_aware exit
# zoneadm -z restricted boot
# zoneadm -z needtoknow halt
# zonecfg -z needtoknow set limitpriv=default,!net_mac_aware exit
# zoneadm -z needtoknow boot
# zoneadm -z internal halt
# zonecfg -z internal set limitpriv=default,!net_mac_aware exit
# zoneadm -z internal boot

Because PUBLIC is the lowest label, the security administrator does not run the commands for the PUBLIC zone.

How to Share a ZFS Dataset From a Labeled Zone

In this procedure, you mount a ZFS dataset with read/write permissions in a labeled zone. Because all commands are executed in the global zone, the global zone administrator controls the addition of ZFS datasets to labeled zones.

At a minimum, the labeled zone must be in the ready state to share a dataset. The zone can be in the running state.

Before You Begin

To configure the zone with the dataset, you first halt the zone.

  1. Create the ZFS dataset.
    # zfs create datasetdir/subdir

    The name of the dataset can include a directory, such as zone/data.

  2. In the global zone, halt the labeled zone.
    # zoneadm -z labeled-zone-name halt
  3. Set the mount point of the dataset.
    # zfs set mountpoint=legacy datasetdir/subdir

    Setting the ZFS mountpoint property sets the label of the mount point when the mount point corresponds to a labeled zone.

  4. Add the dataset to the zone as a file system.
    # zonecfg -z labeled-zone-name
    # zonecfg:labeled-zone-name> add fs
    # zonecfg:labeled-zone-name:dataset> set dir=/subdir
    # zonecfg:labeled-zone-name:dataset> set special=datasetdir/subdir
    # zonecfg:labeled-zone-name:dataset> set type=zfs
    # zonecfg:labeled-zone-name:dataset> end
    # zonecfg:labeled-zone-name> exit

    By adding the dataset as a file system, the dataset is mounted at /data in the zone before the dfstab file is interpreted. This step ensures that the dataset is not mounted before the zone is booted. Specifically, the zone boots, the dataset is mounted, then the dfstab file is interpreted.

  5. Share the dataset.

    Add an entry for the dataset file system to the /zone/labeled-zone-name/etc/dfs/dfstab file. This entry also uses the /subdir pathname.

    share  -F nfs  -d "dataset-comment"  /subdir
  6. Boot the labeled zone.
    # zoneadm -z labeled-zone-name boot

    When the zone is booted, the dataset is mounted automatically as a read/write mount point in the labeled-zone-name zone with the label of the labeled-zone-name zone.

Example 16-5 Sharing and Mounting a ZFS Dataset From Labeled Zones

In this example, the administrator adds a ZFS dataset to the needtoknow zone and shares the dataset. The dataset, zone/data, is currently assigned to the /mnt mount point. Users in the restricted zone can view the dataset.

First, the administrator halts the zone.

# zoneadm -z needtoknow halt

Because the dataset is currently assigned to a different mount point, the administrator removes the previous assignment, then sets the new mount point.

# zfs set zoned=off zone/data
# zfs set mountpoint=legacy zone/data

Next, in the zonecfg interactive interface, the administrator explicitly adds the dataset to the needtoknow zone.

# zonecfg -z needtoknow
# zonecfg:needtoknow> add fs
# zonecfg:needtoknow:dataset> set dir=/data
# zonecfg:needtoknow:dataset> set special=zone/data
# zonecfg:needtoknow:dataset> set type=zfs
# zonecfg:needtoknow:dataset> end
# zonecfg:needtoknow> exit

Next, the administrator modifies the /zone/needtoknow/etc/dfs/dfstab file to share the dataset, then boots the needtoknow zone.

## Global zone dfstab file for needtoknow zone
share -F nfs -d "App Data on ZFS" /data
# zoneadm -z needtoknow boot

The dataset is now accessible.

Users in the the restricted zone, which dominates the needtoknow zone, can view the mounted dataset by changing to the /data directory. They use the full path to the mounted dataset from the perspective of the global zone. In this example, machine1 is the host name of the system that includes the labeled zone. The administrator assigned this host name to a non-shared IP address.

# cd /net/machine1/zone/needtoknow/root/data
Troubleshooting

If the attempt to reach the dataset from the higher label returns the error not found or No such file or directory, the administrator must restart the automounter service by running the svcadm restart autofs command.

How to Enable Files to be Relabeled From a Labeled Zone

This procedure is a prerequisite for a user to be able to relabel files.

Before You Begin

You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

  1. Halt the zone whose configuration you want to change.
    # zoneadm -z zone-name halt
  2. Configure the zone to enable relabeling.

    Add the appropriate privileges to the zone. The windows privileges enable users to use drag-and-drop and cut-and-paste operations.

    • To enable downgrades, add the file_downgrade_sl privilege to the zone.
      # zonecfg -z zone-name
       set limitpriv=default,win_dac_read,win_mac_read,win_dac_write,
       win_mac_write,win_selection,file_downgrade_sl
       exit
    • To enable upgrades, add the sys_trans_label and file_upgrade_sl privileges to the zone.
      # zonecfg -z zone-name
       set limitpriv=default,win_dac_read,win_mac_read,win_dac_write,
       win_mac_write,win_selection,sys_trans_label,file_upgrade_sl
       exit
    • To enable both upgrades and downgrades, add all three privileges to the zone.
      # zonecfg -z zone-name
       set limitpriv=default,win_dac_read,win_mac_read,win_dac_write,
       win_mac_write,win_selection,sys_trans_label,file_downgrade_sl,
       file_upgrade_sl
       exit
  3. Restart the zone.
    # zoneadm -z zone-name boot

    For the user and process requirements that permit relabeling, see the setflabel(3TSOL) man page. To authorize a user to relabel files, see How to Enable a User to Change the Security Level of Data.

Example 16-6 Enabling Upgrades From the internal Zone

In this example, the security administrator wants to enable authorized users on a system to upgrade files. By enabling users to upgrade information, the administrator enables them to protect the information at a higher level of security. In the global zone, the administrator runs the following zone administration commands.

# zoneadm -z internal halt
# zonecfg -z internal set limitpriv=default,sys_trans_label,file_upgrade_sl exit
# zoneadm -z internal boot

Authorized users can now upgrade internal information to restricted from the internal zone.

Example 16-7 Enabling Downgrades From the restricted Zone

In this example, the security administrator wants to enable authorized users on a system to downgrade files. Because the administrator does not add windows privileges to the zone, authorized users cannot use the File Manager to relabel files. To relabel files, users use the setlabel command.

By enabling users to downgrade information, the administrator permits users at a lower level of security to access the files. In the global zone, the administrator runs the following zone administration commands.

# zoneadm -z restricted halt
# zonecfg -z restricted set limitpriv=default,file_downgrade_sl exit
# zoneadm -z restricted boot

Authorized users can now downgrade restricted information to internal or public from the restricted zone by using the setlabel command.

How to Configure a Multilevel Port for NFSv3 Over udp

This procedure is used to enable NFSv3 read-down mounts over udp. The Solaris Management Console is used to add the MLP.

Before You Begin

You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone.

  1. Start the Solaris Management Console.

    For details, see How to Administer the Local System With the Solaris Management Console.

  2. Choose the Files toolbox.

    The title of the toolbox includes Scope=Files, Policy=TSOL.

  3. Configure the zone and the MLP.
    1. Navigate to the Trusted Network Zones tool.
    2. Double-click the global zone.
    3. Add a multilevel port for the UDP protocol:
      1. Click Add for the Multilevel Ports for Zone's IP Addresses.
      2. Type 2049 for the port number, and click OK.
    4. Click OK to save the settings.
  4. Close the Solaris Management Console.
  5. Update the kernel.
    # tnctl -fz /etc/security/tsol/tnzonecfg

How to Create a Multilevel Port for a Zone

This procedure is used when an application that runs in a labeled zone requires a multilevel port (MLP) to communicate with the zone. In this procedure, a web proxy communicates with the zone. The Solaris Management Console is used to add the MLP.

Before You Begin

You must be in the Security Administrator role in the global zone. The labeled zone must exist. For details, see Creating Labeled Zones.

  1. Start the Solaris Management Console.

    For details, see How to Administer the Local System With the Solaris Management Console.

  2. Choose the Files toolbox.

    The title of the toolbox includes Scope=Files, Policy=TSOL.

  3. Add the proxy host and the webservices host to the list of computers.
    1. Under System Configuration, navigate to the Computers and Networks tool.
    2. In the Computers tool, click the Action menu and choose Add Computer.
    3. Add the host name and IP address for the proxy host.
    4. Save the changes.
    5. Add the host name and IP address for the webservice host.
    6. Save the changes.
  4. Configure the zone and the MLP.
    1. Navigate to the Trusted Network Zones tool.
    2. Select the labeled zone.
    3. In the MLP Configuration for Local IP Addresses section, specify the appropriate port/protocol field.
    4. Save the changes.
  5. For the zone, customize a template by completing the following steps:
    1. Navigate to the Security Templates tool.

      Click the Action menu and choose Add Template.

    2. Use the host name for the template name.
    3. Specify CIPSO for the Host Type.
    4. Use the label of the zone for the Minimum Label and for the Maximum Label.
    5. Assign the zone label to the Security Label Set.
    6. Select the Hosts Explicitly Assigned tab.
    7. In the Add an Entry section, add the IP address that is associated with the zone.
    8. Save the changes.
  6. Close the Solaris Management Console.
  7. Start the zones.
    # zoneadm -z zone-name boot
  8. In the global zone, add routes for the new addresses.

    For example, if the zones have a shared IP address, do the following:

    # route add proxy labeled-zones-IP-address
    # route add webservice labeled-zones-IP-address
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