Follow Techotopia on Twitter

On-line Guides
All Guides
eBook Store
iOS / Android
Linux for Beginners
Office Productivity
Linux Installation
Linux Security
Linux Utilities
Linux Virtualization
Linux Kernel
System/Network Admin
Scripting Languages
Development Tools
Web Development
GUI Toolkits/Desktop
Mail Systems
Eclipse Documentation

How To Guides
General System Admin
Linux Security
Linux Filesystems
Web Servers
Graphics & Desktop
PC Hardware
Problem Solutions
Privacy Policy




20.2. What Is Usenet, Anyway?

One of the most astounding facts about Usenet is that it isn't part of any organization, nor does it have any sort of centralized network management authority. In fact, it's part of Usenet lore that except for a technical description, you cannot define what it is; at the risk of sounding stupid, one might define Usenet as a collaboration of separate sites that exchange Usenet news. To be a Usenet site, all you have to do is find another Usenet site and strike an agreement with its owners and maintainers to exchange news with you. Providing another site with news is called feeding it, whence another common axiom of Usenet philosophy originates: “Get a feed, and you're on it.”

The basic unit of Usenet news is the article. This is a message a user writes and “posts” to the net. In order to enable news systems to deal with it, it is prepended with administrative information, the so-called article header. It is very similar to the mail header format laid down in the Internet mail standard RFC-822, in that it consists of several lines of text, each beginning with a field name terminated by a colon, which is followed by the field's value.[1]

Articles are submitted to one or more newsgroup. One may consider a newsgroup a forum for articles relating to a common topic. All newsgroups are organized in a hierarchy, with each group's name indicating its place in the hierarchy. This often makes it easy to see what a group is all about. For example, anybody can see from the newsgroup name that comp.os.linux.announce is used for announcements concerning a computer operating system named Linux.

These articles are then exchanged between all Usenet sites that are willing to carry news from this group. When two sites agree to exchange news, they are free to exchange whatever newsgroups they like, and may even add their own local news hierarchies. For example, might have a news link to, which is a major news feed, and several links to minor sites which it feeds news. Now Barnyard College might receive all Usenet groups, while GMU only wants to carry a few major hierarchies like sci, comp, or rec. Some of the downstream sites, say a UUCP site called brewhq, will want to carry even fewer groups, because they don't have the network or hardware resources. On the other hand, brewhq might want to receive newsgroups from the fj hierarchy, which GMU doesn't carry. It therefore maintains another link with, which carries all fj groups and feeds them to brewhq. The news flow is shown in Figure 20-1.

Figure 20-1. Usenet newsflow through Groucho Marx University

The labels on the arrows originating from brewhq may require some explanation, though. By default, it wants all locally generated news to be sent to However, as does not carry the fj groups, there's no point in sending it any messages from those groups. Therefore, the feed from brewhq to GMU is labeled all,!fj, meaning that all groups except those below fj are sent to it.



The format of Usenet news messages is specified in RFC-1036, “Standard for interchange of USENET messages.”

  Published under the terms of the Creative Commons License Design by Interspire