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Conventions Used in This Book

This book uses the following typographical conventions:


Indicates commands and command options, files, directories, usernames, and hostnames. Also indicates nomenclature that we've not previously used, emphasized words, and new terms.

Constant Width

Indicates strings used for kernel configuration, as well as a few special terms such as device names and distribution packages. Also used to show the command output, and the contents of text and program files.

Constant Width Bold

Used in examples to indicate commands or other text that should be typed literally by the user.

Constant Width Italic

Indicates text that you should replace with your own values; for example, your own name or password. When this appears as part of text that you should type in, it is shown as Constant Width Italic Bold .

#, $

Used in some examples as the root shell prompt (#) and as the user prompt ($) under the Bourne or bash shell.


Indicates a warning or caution.

  Published under the terms of the Creative Commons License Design by Interspire