This manual uses several conventions to highlight certain words and phrases and draw attention to specific pieces of information.
1.1. Typographic Conventions
Four typographic conventions are used to call attention to specific words and phrases. These conventions, and the circumstances they apply to, are as follows.
Used to highlight system input, including shell commands, file names and paths. Also used to highlight key caps and key-combinations. For example:
To see the contents of the file
my_next_bestselling_novel in your current working directory, enter the
cat my_next_bestselling_novel command at the shell prompt and press
to execute the command.
The above includes a file name, a shell command and a key cap, all presented in Mono-spaced Bold and all distinguishable thanks to context.
Key-combinations can be distinguished from key caps by the hyphen connecting each part of a key-combination. For example:
to execute the command.
to switch to the first virtual terminal. Press
to return to your X-Windows session.
The first sentence highlights the particular key cap to press. The second highlights two sets of three key caps, each set pressed simultaneously.
If source code is discussed, class names, methods, functions, variable names and returned values mentioned within a paragraph will be presented as above, in
Mono-spaced Bold. For example:
File-related classes include
filesystem for file systems,
file for files, and
dir for directories. Each class has its own associated set of permissions.
This denotes words or phrases encountered on a system, including application names; dialogue box text; labelled buttons; check-box and radio button labels; menu titles and sub-menu titles. For example:
. In the
tab, click the
check box and click to switch the primary mouse button from the left to the right (making the mouse suitable for use in the left hand).
from the main menu bar to launch
To insert a special character into a
file, choose from the main menu bar. Next, choose from the
menu bar, type the name of the character in the
field and click . The character you sought will be highlighted in the
. Double-click this highlighted character to place it in the
Text to copy
field and then click the button. Now switch back to your document and choose from the
The above text includes application names; system-wide menu names and items; application-specific menu names; and buttons and text found within a GUI interface, all presented in Proportional Bold and all distinguishable by context.
shorthand used to indicate traversal through a menu and its sub-menus. This is to avoid the difficult-to-follow 'Select from the sub-menu in the menu of the main menu bar' approach.
Mono-spaced Bold Italic
Proportional Bold Italic
Whether Mono-spaced Bold or Proportional Bold, the addition of Italics indicates replaceable or variable text. Italics denotes text you do not input literally or displayed text that changes depending on circumstance. For example:
To connect to a remote machine using ssh, type
at a shell prompt. If the remote machine is
and your username on that machine is john, type
ssh [email protected]
mount -o remount
command remounts the named file system. For example, to remount the
/home file system, the command is
mount -o remount /home.
To see the version of a currently installed package, use the
command. It will return a result as follows:
Note the words in bold italics above — username, domain.name, file-system, package, version and release. Each word is a placeholder, either for text you enter when issuing a command or for text displayed by the system.
Aside from standard usage for presenting the title of a work, italics denotes the first use of a new and important term. For example:
When the Apache HTTP Server accepts requests, it dispatches child processes or threads to handle them. This group of child processes or threads is known as a server-pool. Under Apache HTTP Server 2.0, the responsibility for creating and maintaining these server-pools has been abstracted to a group of modules called Multi-Processing Modules (MPMs). Unlike other modules, only one module from the MPM group can be loaded by the Apache HTTP Server.
1.2. Pull-quote Conventions
Two, commonly multi-line, data types are set off visually from the surrounding text.
Output sent to a terminal is set in
Mono-spaced Roman and presented thus:
books Desktop documentation drafts mss photos stuff svn
books_tests Desktop1 downloads images notes scripts svgs
Source-code listings are also set in
Mono-spaced Roman but are presented and highlighted as follows:
public class ExClient
public static void main(String args)
InitialContext iniCtx = new InitialContext();
Object ref = iniCtx.lookup("EchoBean");
EchoHome home = (EchoHome) ref;
Echo echo = home.create();
System.out.println("Echo.echo('Hello') = " + echo.echo("Hello"));
Finally, we use three visual styles to draw attention to information that might otherwise be overlooked.
A Note is a tip or shortcut or alternative approach to the task at hand. Ignoring a note should have no negative consequences, but you might miss out on a trick that makes your life easier.
Important boxes detail things that are easily missed: configuration changes that only apply to the current session, or services that need restarting before an update will apply. Ignoring Important boxes won't cause data loss but may cause irritation and frustration.
A Warning should not be ignored. Ignoring warnings will most likely cause data loss.