More than one function may be defined with the same SQL name, so long as the arguments they take are different. In other words, function names can be overloaded. When a query is executed, the server will determine which function to call from the data types and the number of the provided arguments. Overloading can also be used to simulate functions with a variable number of arguments, up to a finite maximum number.
When creating a family of overloaded functions, one should be careful not to create ambiguities. For instance, given the functions
CREATE FUNCTION test(int, real) RETURNS ...
CREATE FUNCTION test(smallint, double precision) RETURNS ...
it is not immediately clear which function would be called with some trivial input like test(1, 1.5). The currently implemented resolution rules are described in Chapter 10, but it is unwise to design a system that subtly relies on this behavior.
A function that takes a single argument of a composite type should generally not have the same name as any attribute (field) of that type. Recall that attribute(table) is considered equivalent to table.attribute. In the case that there is an ambiguity between a function on a composite type and an attribute of the composite type, the attribute will always be used. It is possible to override that choice by schema-qualifying the function name (that is, schema.func(table)) but it's better to avoid the problem by not choosing conflicting names.
When overloading C-language functions, there is an additional constraint: The C name of each function in the family of overloaded functions must be different from the C names of all other functions, either internal or dynamically loaded. If this rule is violated, the behavior is not portable. You might get a run-time linker error, or one of the functions will get called (usually the internal one). The alternative form of the AS clause for the SQL CREATE FUNCTION command decouples the SQL function name from the function name in the C source code. For instance,
CREATE FUNCTION test(int) RETURNS int
CREATE FUNCTION test(int, int) RETURNS int
The names of the C functions here reflect one of many possible conventions.