This manual uses several conventions to highlight certain words and phrases and draw attention to specific pieces of information.
1.1. Typographic Conventions
Four typographic conventions are used to call attention to specific words and phrases. These conventions, and the circumstances they apply to, are as follows.
Used to highlight system input, including shell commands, file names and paths. Also used to highlight keycaps and key combinations. For example:
To see the contents of the file
my_next_bestselling_novel in your current working directory, enter the
cat my_next_bestselling_novel command at the shell prompt and press Enter to execute the command.
The above includes a file name, a shell command and a keycap, all presented in mono-spaced bold and all distinguishable thanks to context.
Key combinations can be distinguished from keycaps by the hyphen connecting each part of a key combination. For example:
Press Enter to execute the command.
Press Ctrl+Alt+F2 to switch to the first virtual terminal. Press Ctrl+Alt+F1 to return to your X-Windows session.
The first paragraph highlights the particular keycap to press. The second highlights two key combinations (each a set of three keycaps with each set pressed simultaneously).
If source code is discussed, class names, methods, functions, variable names and returned values mentioned within a paragraph will be presented as above, in
mono-spaced bold. For example:
File-related classes include
filesystem for file systems,
file for files, and
dir for directories. Each class has its own associated set of permissions.
This denotes words or phrases encountered on a system, including application names; dialog box text; labeled buttons; check-box and radio button labels; menu titles and sub-menu titles. For example:
Choose → → from the main menu bar to launch Mouse Preferences. In the Buttons tab, click the Left-handed mouse check box and click Close to switch the primary mouse button from the left to the right (making the mouse suitable for use in the left hand).
To insert a special character into a gedit file, choose → → from the main menu bar. Next, choose → from the Character Map menu bar, type the name of the character in the Search field and click Next. The character you sought will be highlighted in the Character Table. Double-click this highlighted character to place it in the Text to copy field and then click the Copy button. Now switch back to your document and choose → from the gedit menu bar.
The above text includes application names; system-wide menu names and items; application-specific menu names; and buttons and text found within a GUI interface, all presented in proportional bold and all distinguishable by context.
Mono-spaced Bold Italic
Proportional Bold Italic
Whether mono-spaced bold or proportional bold, the addition of italics indicates replaceable or variable text. Italics denotes text you do not input literally or displayed text that changes depending on circumstance. For example:
To connect to a remote machine using ssh, type
at a shell prompt. If the remote machine is
and your username on that machine is john, type
ssh [email protected]
mount -o remount command remounts the named file system. For example, to remount the
/home file system, the command is
mount -o remount /home.
To see the version of a currently installed package, use the
rpm -q command. It will return a result as follows:
Note the words in bold italics above — username, domain.name, file-system, package, version and release. Each word is a placeholder, either for text you enter when issuing a command or for text displayed by the system.
Aside from standard usage for presenting the title of a work, italics denotes the first use of a new and important term. For example:
Publican is a DocBook publishing system.
1.2. Pull-quote Conventions
Terminal output and source code listings are set off visually from the surrounding text.
Output sent to a terminal is set in
mono-spaced roman and presented thus:
books Desktop documentation drafts mss photos stuff svn
books_tests Desktop1 downloads images notes scripts svgs
Source-code listings are also set in
mono-spaced roman but add syntax highlighting as follows:
public class ExClient
public static void main(String args)
InitialContext iniCtx = new InitialContext();
Object ref = iniCtx.lookup("EchoBean");
EchoHome home = (EchoHome) ref;
Echo echo = home.create();
System.out.println("Echo.echo('Hello') = " + echo.echo("Hello"));