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19.3.12.  /proc/PID/

Out of Memory (OOM) refers to a computing state where all available memory, including swap space, has been allocated. When this situation occurs, it will cause the system to panic and stop functioning as expected. There is a switch that controls OOM behavior in /proc/sys/vm/panic_on_oom. When set to 1 the kernel will panic on OOM. A setting of 0 instructs the kernel to call a function named oom_killer on an OOM. Usually, oom_killer can kill rogue processes and the system will survive.
The easiest way to change this is to echo the new value to /proc/sys/vm/panic_on_oom.
# cat /proc/sys/vm/panic_on_oom

# echo 0 > /proc/sys/vm/panic_on_oom

# cat /proc/sys/vm/panic_on_oom
It is also possible to prioritize which processes get killed by adjusting the oom_killer score. In /proc/PID/ there are two tools labelled oom_adj and oom_score. Valid scores for oom_adj are in the range -16 to +15. To see the current oom_killer score, view the oom_score for the process. oom_killer will kill processes with the highest scores first.
This example adjusts the oom_score of a process with a PID of 12465 to make it less likely that oom_killer will kill it.
# cat /proc/12465/oom_score

# echo -5 > /proc/12465/oom_adj

# cat /proc/12465/oom_score
There is also a special value of -17, which disables oom_killer for that process. In the example below, oom_score returns a value of 0, indicating that this process would not be killed.
# cat /proc/12465/oom_score

# echo -17 > /proc/12465/oom_adj

# cat /proc/12465/oom_score
A function called badness() is used to determine the actual score for each process. This is done by adding up 'points' for each examined process. The process scoring is done in the following way:
  1. The basis of each process's score is its memory size.
  2. The memory size of any of the process's children (not including a kernel thread) is also added to the score
  3. The process's score is increased for 'niced' processes and decreased for long running processes.
  4. Processes with the CAP_SYS_ADMIN and CAP_SYS_RAWIO capabilities have their scores reduced.
  5. The final score is then bitshifted by the value saved in the oom_adj file.
Thus, a process with the highest oom_score value will most probably be a non-priviliged, recently started process that, along with its children, uses a large amount of memory, has been 'niced', and handles no raw I/O.

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