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10.2.2. Other Statement Types

The following types of statements are less commonly used in /etc/named.conf:
The controls statement allows you to configure various security requirements necessary to use the rndc command to administer the named service.
Refer to Section 10.4, “Using the rndc Utility” for more information on the rndc utility and its usage.
The key statement allows you to define a particular key by name. Keys are used to authenticate various actions, such as secure updates or the use of the rndc command. Two options are used with key:
  • algorithm algorithm-name — The type of algorithm to be used (for example, hmac-md5).
  • secret "key-value" — The encrypted key.
Refer to Section 10.4, “Using the rndc Utility” for more information on the rndc utility and its usage.
The logging statement allows you to use multiple types of logs, so called channels. By using the channel option within the statement, you can construct a customized type of log with its own file name (file), size limit (size), versioning (version), and level of importance (severity). Once a customized channel is defined, a category option is used to categorize the channel and begin logging when the named service is restarted.
By default, named sends standard messages to the rsyslog daemon, which places them in /var/log/messages. Several standard channels are built into BIND with various severity levels, such as default_syslog (which handles informational logging messages) and default_debug (which specifically handles debugging messages). A default category, called default, uses the built-in channels to do normal logging without any special configuration.
Customizing the logging process can be a very detailed process and is beyond the scope of this chapter. For information on creating custom BIND logs, refer to the BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual referenced in Section 10.8.1, “Installed Documentation”.
The server statement allows you to specify options that affect how the named service should respond to remote nameservers, especially with regard to notifications and zone transfers.
The transfer-format option controls the number of resource records that are sent with each message. It can be either one-answer (only one resource record), or many-answers (multiple resource records). Note that while the many-answers option is more efficient, it is not supported by older versions of BIND.
The trusted-keys statement allows you to specify assorted public keys used for secure DNS (DNSSEC). Refer to Section 10.6.4, “DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC)” for more information on this topic.
The view statement allows you to create special views depending upon which network the host querying the nameserver is on. This allows some hosts to receive one answer regarding a zone while other hosts receive totally different information. Alternatively, certain zones may only be made available to particular trusted hosts while non-trusted hosts can only make queries for other zones.
Multiple views can be used as long as their names are unique. The match-clients option allows you to specify the IP addresses that apply to a particular view. If the options statement is used within a view, it overrides the already configured global options. Finally, most view statements contain multiple zone statements that apply to the match-clients list.
Note that the order in which the view statements are listed is important, as the first statement that matches a particular client's IP address is used. For more information on this topic, refer to Section 10.6.1, “Multiple Views”.

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