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17.2. Debugging Information in Separate Files

gdb allows you to put a program's debugging information in a file separate from the executable itself, in a way that allows gdb to find and load the debugging information automatically. Since debugging information can be very large -- sometimes larger than the executable code itself -- some systems distribute debugging information for their executables in separate files, which users can install only when they need to debug a problem.

If an executable's debugging information has been extracted to a separate file, the executable should contain a debug link giving the name of the debugging information file (with no directory components), and a checksum of its contents. (The exact form of a debug link is described below.) If the full name of the directory containing the executable is execdir, and the executable has a debug link that specifies the name debugfile, then gdb will automatically search for the debugging information file in three places:

  • the directory containing the executable file (that is, it will look for a file named execdir/debugfile,

  • a subdirectory of that directory named .debug (that is, the file execdir/.debug/debugfile, and

  • a subdirectory of the global debug file directory that includes the executable's full path, and the name from the link (that is, the file globaldebugdir/execdir/debugfile, where globaldebugdir is the global debug file directory, and execdir has been turned into a relative path).

gdb checks under each of these names for a debugging information file whose checksum matches that given in the link, and reads the debugging information from the first one it finds.

So, for example, if you ask gdb to debug /usr/bin/ls, which has a link containing the name ls.debug, and the global debug directory is /usr/lib/debug, then gdb will look for debug information in /usr/bin/ls.debug, /usr/bin/.debug/ls.debug, and /usr/lib/debug/usr/bin/ls.debug.

You can set the global debugging info directory's name, and view the name gdb is currently using.

set debug-file-directory directory

Set the directory which gdb searches for separate debugging information files to directory.

show debug-file-directory

Show the directory gdb searches for separate debugging information files.

A debug link is a special section of the executable file named .gnu_debuglink. The section must contain:

  • A filename, with any leading directory components removed, followed by a zero byte,

  • zero to three bytes of padding, as needed to reach the next four-byte boundary within the section, and

  • a four-byte CRC checksum, stored in the same endianness used for the executable file itself. The checksum is computed on the debugging information file's full contents by the function given below, passing zero as the crc argument.

Any executable file format can carry a debug link, as long as it can contain a section named .gnu_debuglink with the contents described above.

The debugging information file itself should be an ordinary executable, containing a full set of linker symbols, sections, and debugging information. The sections of the debugging information file should have the same names, addresses and sizes as the original file, but they need not contain any data -- much like a .bss section in an ordinary executable.

As of December 2002, there is no standard GNU utility to produce separated executable / debugging information file pairs. Ulrich Drepper's elfutils package, starting with version 0.53, contains a version of the strip command such that the command strip foo -f foo.debug removes the debugging information from the executable file foo, places it in the file foo.debug, and leaves behind a debug link in foo.

Since there are many different ways to compute CRC's (different polynomials, reversals, byte ordering, etc.), the simplest way to describe the CRC used in .gnu_debuglink sections is to give the complete code for a function that computes it:

unsigned long
gnu_debuglink_crc32 (unsigned long crc,
                     unsigned char *buf, size_t len)
{
  static const unsigned long crc32_table[256] =
    {
      0x00000000, 0x77073096, 0xee0e612c, 0x990951ba, 0x076dc419,
      0x706af48f, 0xe963a535, 0x9e6495a3, 0x0edb8832, 0x79dcb8a4,
      0xe0d5e91e, 0x97d2d988, 0x09b64c2b, 0x7eb17cbd, 0xe7b82d07,
      0x90bf1d91, 0x1db71064, 0x6ab020f2, 0xf3b97148, 0x84be41de,
      0x1adad47d, 0x6ddde4eb, 0xf4d4b551, 0x83d385c7, 0x136c9856,
      0x646ba8c0, 0xfd62f97a, 0x8a65c9ec, 0x14015c4f, 0x63066cd9,
      0xfa0f3d63, 0x8d080df5, 0x3b6e20c8, 0x4c69105e, 0xd56041e4,
      0xa2677172, 0x3c03e4d1, 0x4b04d447, 0xd20d85fd, 0xa50ab56b,
      0x35b5a8fa, 0x42b2986c, 0xdbbbc9d6, 0xacbcf940, 0x32d86ce3,
      0x45df5c75, 0xdcd60dcf, 0xabd13d59, 0x26d930ac, 0x51de003a,
      0xc8d75180, 0xbfd06116, 0x21b4f4b5, 0x56b3c423, 0xcfba9599,
      0xb8bda50f, 0x2802b89e, 0x5f058808, 0xc60cd9b2, 0xb10be924,
      0x2f6f7c87, 0x58684c11, 0xc1611dab, 0xb6662d3d, 0x76dc4190,
      0x01db7106, 0x98d220bc, 0xefd5102a, 0x71b18589, 0x06b6b51f,
      0x9fbfe4a5, 0xe8b8d433, 0x7807c9a2, 0x0f00f934, 0x9609a88e,
      0xe10e9818, 0x7f6a0dbb, 0x086d3d2d, 0x91646c97, 0xe6635c01,
      0x6b6b51f4, 0x1c6c6162, 0x856530d8, 0xf262004e, 0x6c0695ed,
      0x1b01a57b, 0x8208f4c1, 0xf50fc457, 0x65b0d9c6, 0x12b7e950,
      0x8bbeb8ea, 0xfcb9887c, 0x62dd1ddf, 0x15da2d49, 0x8cd37cf3,
      0xfbd44c65, 0x4db26158, 0x3ab551ce, 0xa3bc0074, 0xd4bb30e2,
      0x4adfa541, 0x3dd895d7, 0xa4d1c46d, 0xd3d6f4fb, 0x4369e96a,
      0x346ed9fc, 0xad678846, 0xda60b8d0, 0x44042d73, 0x33031de5,
      0xaa0a4c5f, 0xdd0d7cc9, 0x5005713c, 0x270241aa, 0xbe0b1010,
      0xc90c2086, 0x5768b525, 0x206f85b3, 0xb966d409, 0xce61e49f,
      0x5edef90e, 0x29d9c998, 0xb0d09822, 0xc7d7a8b4, 0x59b33d17,
      0x2eb40d81, 0xb7bd5c3b, 0xc0ba6cad, 0xedb88320, 0x9abfb3b6,
      0x03b6e20c, 0x74b1d29a, 0xead54739, 0x9dd277af, 0x04db2615,
      0x73dc1683, 0xe3630b12, 0x94643b84, 0x0d6d6a3e, 0x7a6a5aa8,
      0xe40ecf0b, 0x9309ff9d, 0x0a00ae27, 0x7d079eb1, 0xf00f9344,
      0x8708a3d2, 0x1e01f268, 0x6906c2fe, 0xf762575d, 0x806567cb,
      0x196c3671, 0x6e6b06e7, 0xfed41b76, 0x89d32be0, 0x10da7a5a,
      0x67dd4acc, 0xf9b9df6f, 0x8ebeeff9, 0x17b7be43, 0x60b08ed5,
      0xd6d6a3e8, 0xa1d1937e, 0x38d8c2c4, 0x4fdff252, 0xd1bb67f1,
      0xa6bc5767, 0x3fb506dd, 0x48b2364b, 0xd80d2bda, 0xaf0a1b4c,
      0x36034af6, 0x41047a60, 0xdf60efc3, 0xa867df55, 0x316e8eef,
      0x4669be79, 0xcb61b38c, 0xbc66831a, 0x256fd2a0, 0x5268e236,
      0xcc0c7795, 0xbb0b4703, 0x220216b9, 0x5505262f, 0xc5ba3bbe,
      0xb2bd0b28, 0x2bb45a92, 0x5cb36a04, 0xc2d7ffa7, 0xb5d0cf31,
      0x2cd99e8b, 0x5bdeae1d, 0x9b64c2b0, 0xec63f226, 0x756aa39c,
      0x026d930a, 0x9c0906a9, 0xeb0e363f, 0x72076785, 0x05005713,
      0x95bf4a82, 0xe2b87a14, 0x7bb12bae, 0x0cb61b38, 0x92d28e9b,
      0xe5d5be0d, 0x7cdcefb7, 0x0bdbdf21, 0x86d3d2d4, 0xf1d4e242,
      0x68ddb3f8, 0x1fda836e, 0x81be16cd, 0xf6b9265b, 0x6fb077e1,
      0x18b74777, 0x88085ae6, 0xff0f6a70, 0x66063bca, 0x11010b5c,
      0x8f659eff, 0xf862ae69, 0x616bffd3, 0x166ccf45, 0xa00ae278,
      0xd70dd2ee, 0x4e048354, 0x3903b3c2, 0xa7672661, 0xd06016f7,
      0x4969474d, 0x3e6e77db, 0xaed16a4a, 0xd9d65adc, 0x40df0b66,
      0x37d83bf0, 0xa9bcae53, 0xdebb9ec5, 0x47b2cf7f, 0x30b5ffe9,
      0xbdbdf21c, 0xcabac28a, 0x53b39330, 0x24b4a3a6, 0xbad03605,
      0xcdd70693, 0x54de5729, 0x23d967bf, 0xb3667a2e, 0xc4614ab8,
      0x5d681b02, 0x2a6f2b94, 0xb40bbe37, 0xc30c8ea1, 0x5a05df1b,
      0x2d02ef8d
    };
  unsigned char *end;

  crc = ~crc & 0xffffffff;
  for (end = buf + len; buf < end; ++buf)
    crc = crc32_table[(crc ^ *buf) & 0xff] ^ (crc >> 8);
  return ~crc & 0xffffffff;
}

 
 
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