6.9. Double-Word Integers
ISO C99 supports data types for integers that are at least 64 bits wide,
and as an extension GCC supports them in C89 mode and in C++.
Simply write long long int for a signed integer, or
unsigned long long int for an unsigned integer. To make an
integer constant of type long long int, add the suffix LL
to the integer. To make an integer constant of type unsigned long
long int, add the suffix ULL to the integer.
You can use these types in arithmetic like any other integer types.
Addition, subtraction, and bitwise boolean operations on these types
are open-coded on all types of machines. Multiplication is open-coded
if the machine supports fullword-to-doubleword a widening multiply
instruction. Division and shifts are open-coded only on machines that
provide special support. The operations that are not open-coded use
special library routines that come with GCC.
There may be pitfalls when you use long long types for function
arguments, unless you declare function prototypes. If a function
expects type int for its argument, and you pass a value of type
long long int, confusion will result because the caller and the
subroutine will disagree about the number of bytes for the argument.
Likewise, if the function expects long long int and you pass
int. The best way to avoid such problems is to use prototypes.