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Thinking in C++
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Pointer & reference upcasting

In Instrument.cpp, the upcasting occurs during the function call – a Wind object outside the function has its reference taken and becomes an Instrument reference inside the function. Upcasting can also occur during a simple assignment to a pointer or reference:

Wind w;
Instrument* ip = &w; // Upcast
Instrument& ir = w; // Upcast

Like the function call, neither of these cases requires an explicit cast.

Thinking in C++
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   Reproduced courtesy of Bruce Eckel, MindView, Inc. Design by Interspire