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Thinking in C++
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More about iostreams

So far you have seen only the most rudimentary aspect of the iostreams class. The output formatting available with iostreams also includes features such as number formatting in decimal, octal, and hexadecimal. Here’s another example of the use of iostreams:

//: C02:Stream2.cpp
// More streams features
#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

int main() {
  // Specifying formats with manipulators:
  cout << "a number in decimal: "
       << dec << 15 << endl;
  cout << "in octal: " << oct << 15 << endl;
  cout << "in hex: " << hex << 15 << endl;
  cout << "a floating-point number: "
       << 3.14159 << endl;
  cout << "non-printing char (escape): "
       << char(27) << endl;
} ///:~

This example shows the iostreams class printing numbers in decimal, octal, and hexadecimal using iostream manipulators (which don’t print anything, but change the state of the output stream). The formatting of floating-point numbers is determined automatically by the compiler. In addition, any character can be sent to a stream object using a cast to a char (a char is a data type that holds single characters). This cast looks like a function call: char( ), along with the character’s ASCII value. In the program above, the char(27) sends an “escape” to cout.

Thinking in C++
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   Reproduced courtesy of Bruce Eckel, MindView, Inc. Design by Interspire