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openSUSE 11.1 Reference Guide
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11.5 The /proc File System

The /proc file system is a pseudo file system in which the kernel reserves important information in the form of virtual files. For example, display the CPU type with this command:

[email protected]:~> cat /proc/cpuinfo
processor       : 0
vendor_id       : GenuineIntel
cpu family      : 15
model           : 4
model name      : Intel(R) Pentium(R) 4 CPU 3.40GHz
stepping        : 3
cpu MHz         : 2800.000
cache size      : 2048 KB
physical id     : 0
[...]

Query the allocation and use of interrupts with the following command:

[email protected]:~> cat /proc/interrupts
           CPU0
  0:    3577519          XT-PIC  timer
  1:        130          XT-PIC  i8042
  2:          0          XT-PIC  cascade
  5:     564535          XT-PIC  Intel 82801DB-ICH4
  7:          1          XT-PIC  parport0
  8:          2          XT-PIC  rtc
  9:          1          XT-PIC  acpi, uhci_hcd:usb1, ehci_hcd:usb4
 10:          0          XT-PIC  uhci_hcd:usb3
 11:      71772          XT-PIC  uhci_hcd:usb2, eth0
 12:     101150          XT-PIC  i8042
 14:      33146          XT-PIC  ide0
 15:     149202          XT-PIC  ide1
NMI:          0
LOC:          0
ERR:          0
MIS:          0

Some of the important files and their contents are:

/proc/devices

Available devices

/proc/modules

Kernel modules loaded

/proc/cmdline

Kernel command line

/proc/meminfo

Detailed information about memory usage

/proc/config.gz

gzip-compressed configuration file of the kernel currently running

Further information is available in the text file /usr/src/linux/Documentation/filesystems/proc.txt (this file is available when the package kernel-source is installed). Find information about processes currently running in the /proc/NNN directories, where NNN is the process ID (PID) of the relevant process. Every process can find its own characteristics in /proc/self/:

[email protected]:~> ls -l /proc/self
lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 64 2007-07-16 13:03 /proc/self -> 5356
[email protected]:~> ls -l /proc/self/
total 0
dr-xr-xr-x 2 tux users 0 2007-07-16 17:04 attr
-r-------- 1 tux users 0 2007-07-16 17:04 auxv
-r--r--r-- 1 tux users 0 2007-07-16 17:04 cmdline
lrwxrwxrwx 1 tux users 0 2007-07-16 17:04 cwd -> /home/tux
-r-------- 1 tux users 0 2007-07-16 17:04 environ
lrwxrwxrwx 1 tux users 0 2007-07-16 17:04 exe -> /bin/ls
dr-x------ 2 tux users 0 2007-07-16 17:04 fd
-rw-r--r-- 1 tux users 0 2007-07-16 17:04 loginuid
-r--r--r-- 1 tux users 0 2007-07-16 17:04 maps
-rw------- 1 tux users 0 2007-07-16 17:04 mem
-r--r--r-- 1 tux users 0 2007-07-16 17:04 mounts
-rw-r--r-- 1 tux users 0 2007-07-16 17:04 oom_adj
-r--r--r-- 1 tux users 0 2007-07-16 17:04 oom_score
lrwxrwxrwx 1 tux users 0 2007-07-16 17:04 root -> /
-rw------- 1 tux users 0 2007-07-16 17:04 seccomp
-r--r--r-- 1 tux users 0 2007-07-16 17:04 smaps
-r--r--r-- 1 tux users 0 2007-07-16 17:04 stat
[...]
dr-xr-xr-x 3 tux users 0 2007-07-16 17:04 task
-r--r--r-- 1 tux users 0 2007-07-16 17:04 wchan

The address assignment of executables and libraries is contained in the maps file:

[email protected]:~> cat /proc/self/maps
08048000-0804c000 r-xp 00000000 03:03 17753      /bin/cat
0804c000-0804d000 rw-p 00004000 03:03 17753      /bin/cat
0804d000-0806e000 rw-p 0804d000 00:00 0          [heap]
b7d27000-b7d5a000 r--p 00000000 03:03 11867      /usr/lib/locale/en_GB.utf8/
b7d5a000-b7e32000 r--p 00000000 03:03 11868      /usr/lib/locale/en_GB.utf8/
b7e32000-b7e33000 rw-p b7e32000 00:00 0
b7e33000-b7f45000 r-xp 00000000 03:03 8837       /lib/libc-2.3.6.so
b7f45000-b7f46000 r--p 00112000 03:03 8837       /lib/libc-2.3.6.so
b7f46000-b7f48000 rw-p 00113000 03:03 8837       /lib/libc-2.3.6.so
b7f48000-b7f4c000 rw-p b7f48000 00:00 0
b7f52000-b7f53000 r--p 00000000 03:03 11842      /usr/lib/locale/en_GB.utf8/
[...]
b7f5b000-b7f61000 r--s 00000000 03:03 9109       /usr/lib/gconv/gconv-module
b7f61000-b7f62000 r--p 00000000 03:03 9720       /usr/lib/locale/en_GB.utf8/
b7f62000-b7f76000 r-xp 00000000 03:03 8828       /lib/ld-2.3.6.so
b7f76000-b7f78000 rw-p 00013000 03:03 8828       /lib/ld-2.3.6.so
bfd61000-bfd76000 rw-p bfd61000 00:00 0          [stack]
ffffe000-fffff000 ---p 00000000 00:00 0          [vdso]

11.5.1 procinfo

Important information from the /proc file system is summarized by the command procinfo:

[email protected]:~> procinfo
Linux 2.6.18.8-0.5-default ([email protected]) (gcc 4.1.2 20061115) #1 2CPU

Memory:      Total        Used        Free      Shared     Buffers
Mem:       2060604     2011264       49340           0      200664
Swap:      2104472         112     2104360

Bootup: Tue Jul 10 10:29:15 2007    Load average: 0.86 1.10 1.11 3/118 21547

user  :       2:43:13.78   0.8%  page in :   71099181  disk 1:  2827023r 968
nice  :   1d 22:21:27.87  14.7%  page out:  690734737
system:      13:39:57.57   4.3%  page act:  138388345
IOwait:      18:02:18.59   5.7%  page dea:   29639529
hw irq:       0:03:39.44   0.0%  page flt: 9539791626
sw irq:       1:15:35.25   0.4%  swap in :         69
idle  :   9d 16:07:56.79  73.8%  swap out:        209
uptime:   6d 13:07:11.14         context :  542720687

irq  0: 141399308 timer          irq 14:   5074312 ide0
irq  1:     73784 i8042          irq 50:   1938076 uhci_hcd:usb1, ehci_
irq  4:         2                irq 58:         0 uhci_hcd:usb2
irq  6:         5 floppy [2]     irq 66:    872711 uhci_hcd:usb3, HDA I
irq  7:         2                irq 74:        15 uhci_hcd:usb4
irq  8:         0 rtc            irq 82: 178717720 0         PCI-MSI  e
irq  9:         0 acpi           irq169:  44352794 nvidia
irq 12:         3                irq233:   8209068 0         PCI-MSI  l

To see all the information, use the parameter -a. The parameter -nN produces updates of the information every N seconds. In this case, terminate the program by pressing Q.

By default, the cumulative values are displayed. The parameter -d produces the differential values. procinfo -dn5 displays the values that have changed in the last five seconds:

openSUSE 11.1 Reference Guide
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