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System Administration Guide: Security Services
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Audit Token Formats

Each audit token has a token type identifier, which is followed by data that is specific to the token. Each token type has its own format. The following table shows the token names with a brief description of each token. Obsolete tokens are maintained for compatibility with previous Solaris releases.

Table 31-4 Audit Tokens for Solaris Auditing

Token Name

Description

For More Information

acl

Access Control List (ACL) information

acl Token

arbitrary

Data with format and type information

arbitrary Token (Obsolete)

arg

System call argument value

arg Token

attribute

File vnode tokens

attribute Token

cmd

Command arguments and environment variables

cmd Token

exec_args

Exec system call arguments

exec_args Token

exec_env

Exec system call environment variables

exec_env Token

exit

Program exit information

exit Token (Obsolete)

file

Audit file information

file Token

group

Process groups information

group Token (Obsolete)

groups

Process groups information

groups Token

header

Indicates start of audit record

header Token

in_addr

Internet address

in_addr Token

ip

IP header information

ip Token (Obsolete)

ipc

System V IPC information

ipc Token

ipc_perm

System V IPC object tokens

ipc_perm Token

iport

Internet port address

iport Token

opaque

Unstructured data (unspecified format)

opaque Token (Obsolete)

path

Path information

path Token

path_attr

Access path information

path_attr Token

privilege

Privilege set information

privilege Token

process

Process token information

process Token

return

Status of system call

return Token

sequence

Sequence number token

sequence Token

socket

Socket type and addresses

socket Token

subject

Subject token information (same format as process token)

subject Token

text

ASCII string

text Token

trailer

Indicates end of audit record

trailer Token

uauth

Use of authorization

uauth Token

zonename

Name of zone

zonename Token

An audit record always begins with a header token. The header token indicates where the audit record begins in the audit trail. In the case of attributable events, the subject and the process tokens refer to the values of the process that caused the event. In the case of nonattributable events, the process token refers to the system.

acl Token

The acl token records information about Access Control Lists (ACLs). This token consists of four fixed fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as an acl token

  • A field that specifies the ACL type

  • An ACL value field

  • A field that lists the permissions associated with this ACL

The praudit command displays the acl token as follows:

acl,jdoe,staff,0755

arbitrary Token (Obsolete)

The arbitrary token encapsulates data for the audit trail. This token consists of four fixed fields and an array of data. The fixed fields are as follows:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as an arbitrary token

  • A suggested print format field, such as hexadecimal

  • An item size field that specifies the size of the data that is encapsulated, such as short

  • A count field that provides the number of following items

The remainder of the token is composed of count of the specified type. The praudit command displays the arbitrary token as follows:

arbitrary,decimal,int,1
42

The following table shows the possible values of the print format field.

Table 31-5 Values for the arbitrary Token's Print Format Field

Value

Action

AUP_BINARY

Prints the date in binary format

AUP_OCTAL

Prints the date in octal format

AUP_DECIMAL

Prints the date in decimal format

AUP_HEX

Prints the date in hexadecimal format

AUP_STRING

Prints the date as a string

The following table shows the possible values of the item size field.

Table 31-6 Values for the arbitrary Token's Item Size Field

Value

Action

AUR_BYTE

Data is printed in units of bytes in 1 byte

AUR_SHORT

Data is printed in units of shorts in 2 bytes

AUR_LONG

Data is printed in units of longs in 4 bytes

arg Token

The arg token contains information about the arguments to a system call: the argument number of the system call, the argument value, and an optional description. This token allows a 32-bit integer system-call argument in an audit record. The arg token has five fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as an arg token

  • An argument ID that tells which system call argument that the token refers to

  • The argument value

  • The length of the descriptive text string

  • The text string

The praudit command displays the arg token without the fourth field, as follows:

argument,4,0xffbfe0ac,pri

The praudit -x command includes the names of the fields that are displayed:

<argument arg-num="4" value="0xffbfe0ac" desc="pri"/>

attribute Token

The attribute token contains information from the file vnode. This token has seven fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as an attribute token

  • The file access mode and type

  • The owner user ID

  • The owner group ID

  • The file system ID

  • The node ID

  • The device ID that the file might represent

For further information about the file system ID and the device ID, see the statvfs(2) man page.

The attribute token usually accompanies a path token. The attribute token is produced during path searches. If a path-search error occurs, there is no vnode available to obtain the necessary file information. Therefore, the attribute token is not included as part of the audit record. The praudit command displays the attribute token as follows:

attribute,20666,root,root,247,4829,450971566127

cmd Token

The cmd token records the list of arguments and the list of environment variables that are associated with a command.

The cmd token contains the following fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as a cmd token

  • A count of the command's arguments

  • The argument list

  • The length of the next field

  • The content of the arguments

  • A count of the environment variables

  • The list of environment variables

  • The length of the next field

  • The content of the environment variables

The praudit command displays the cmd token as follows:

cmd,argcnt,3,ls,-l,/etc,envcnt,0,

exec_args Token

The exec_args token records the arguments to an exec() system call. The exec_args token has two fixed fields:

  • A token ID field that identifies this token as an exec_args token

  • A count that represents the number of arguments that are passed to the exec() system call

The remainder of this token is composed of count strings. The praudit command displays the exec_args token as follows:

exec_args,2,vi,/etc/security/audit_user

Note - The exec_args token is output only when the argv audit policy option is active.


exec_env Token

The exec_env token records the current environment variables to an exec() system call. The exec_env token has two fixed fields:

  • A token ID field that identifies this token as an exec_env token

  • A count that represents the number of arguments that are passed to the exec() system call

The remainder of this token is composed of count strings. The praudit command displays the exec_env token as follows:

exec_env,25,
GROUP=staff,HOME=/export/home/jdoe,HOST=exm1,HOSTTYPE=sun4u,HZ=100,
LC_COLLATE=en_US.ISO8859-1,LC_CTYPE=en_US.ISO8859-1,LC_MESSAGES=C,
LC_MONETARY=en_US.ISO8859-1,LC_NUMERIC=en_US.ISO8859-1,
LC_TIME=en_US.ISO8859-1,LOGNAME=jdoe,MACHTYPE=sparc,
MAIL=/var/mail/jdoe,OSTYPE=solaris,PATH=/usr/sbin:/usr/bin,PS1=#,
PWD=/var/audit,REMOTEHOST=192.168.13.5,SHELL=/usr/bin/csh,SHLVL=1,
TERM=dtterm,TZ=US/Pacific,USER=jdoe,VENDOR=sun

Note - The exec_env token is output only when the arge audit policy option is active.


exit Token (Obsolete)

The exit token records the exit status of a program. The exit token contains the following fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as an exit token

  • A program exit status as passed to the exit() system call

  • A return value that describes the exit status or that provides a system error number

The praudit command displays the exit token as follows:

exit,Error 0,0

file Token

The file token is a special token that is generated by the auditd daemon. The token marks the beginning of a new audit file and the end of an old audit file as the old file is deactivated. The auditd daemon builds a special audit record that contains this token to “link” together successive audit files into one audit trail.

The file token has four fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as a file token

  • A timestamp that identifies the date and the time that the file was created or was closed

  • The file name length

  • A field that holds the file null-terminated name

The praudit -x command shows the fields of the file token:

file,2003-10-13 11:21:35.506 -07:00,
    /var/audit/localhost/files/20031013175058.20031013182135.example1

group Token (Obsolete)

This token has been replaced by the the groups token. See groups Token.

groups Token

The groups token replaces the group token. The groups token records the group entries from the process's credential. The groups token has two fixed fields:

  • A token ID field that identifies this token as a groups token

  • A count that represents the number of groups that are contained in this audit record

The remainder of this token is composed of count group entries. The praudit command displays the groups token as follows:

groups,staff,admin

Note - The groups token is output only when the group audit policy option is active.


header Token

The header token is special in that it marks the beginning of an audit record. The header token combines with the trailer token to bracket all the other tokens in the record.

The header token has eight fields:

  • A token ID field that identifies this token as a header token

  • A byte count of the total length of the audit record, including both the header and the trailer tokens

  • A version number that identifies the version of the audit record structure

  • The audit event ID that identifies the audit event that the record represents

  • The ID modifier that identifies special characteristics of the audit event

  • The address type, either IPv4 or IPv6

  • The machine's IP address

  • The time and date that the record was created

On 64-bit systems, the header token is displayed with a 64-bit timestamp, in place of the 32-bit timestamp.

The praudit command displays the header token for a ioctl() system call as follows:

header,176,2,ioctl(2),fe,example1,2003-09-08 11:23:31.050 -07:00

The ID modifier field has the following flags defined:

0x4000            PAD_NOTATTR                        nonattributable event
0x8000            PAD_FAILURE                        failed audit event

in_addr Token

The in_addr token contains an Internet Protocol address. Since the Solaris 8 release, the Internet address can be displayed in IPv4 format or IPv6 format. The IPv4 address uses 4 bytes. The IPv6 address uses 1 byte to describe the address type, and 16 bytes to describe the address. The in_addr token has three fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as an in_addr token

  • The IP address type, either IPv4 or IPv6

  • An IP address

The praudit command displays the in_addr token, without the second field, as follows:

ip address,192.168.113.7

ip Token (Obsolete)

The ip token contains a copy of an Internet Protocol header. The ip token has two fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as an ip token

  • A copy of the IP header, that is, all 20 bytes

The praudit command displays the ip token as follows:

ip address,0.0.0.0

The IP header structure is defined in the /usr/include/netinet/ip.h file.

ipc Token

The ipc token contains the System V IPC message handle, semaphore handle, or shared-memory handle that is used by the caller to identify a particular IPC object. The ipc token has three fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as an ipc token

  • A type field that specifies the type of IPC object

  • The handle that identifies the IPC object


Note - The IPC object identifiers violate the context-free nature of the Solaris audit tokens. No global “name” uniquely identifies IPC objects. Instead, IPC objects are identified by their handles. The handles are valid only during the time that the IPC objects are active. However, the identification of IPC objects should not be a problem. The System V IPC mechanisms are seldom used, and the mechanisms all share the same audit class.


The following table shows the possible values for the IPC object type field. The values are defined in the /usr/include/bsm/audit.h file.

Table 31-7 Values for the IPC Object Type Field

Name

Value

Description

AU_IPC_MSG

1

IPC message object

AU_IPC_SEM

2

IPC semaphore object

AU_IPC_SHM

3

IPC shared-memory object

The praudit command displays the ipc token as follows:

IPC,msg,3

ipc_perm Token

The ipc_perm token contains a copy of the System V IPC access permissions. This token is added to audit records that are generated by IPC shared-memory events, IPC semaphore events, and IPC message events. The ipc_perm token has eight fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as an ipc_perm token

  • The user ID of the IPC owner

  • The group ID of the IPC owner

  • The user ID of the IPC creator

  • The group ID of the IPC creator

  • The access mode of the IPC

  • The sequence number of the IPC

  • The IPC key value

The praudit command displays the ipc_perm token as follows:

IPC perm,root,sys,root,sys,0,0,0x00000000

The values are taken from the ipc_perm structure that is associated with the IPC object.

iport Token

The iport token contains the TCP or UDP port address. The iport token has two fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as an iport token

  • The TCP or UDP port address

The praudit command displays the iport token as follows:

ip port,0xf6d6

opaque Token (Obsolete)

The opaque token contains unformatted data as a sequence of bytes. The opaque token has three fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as an opaque token

  • A byte count of the data

  • An array of byte data

The praudit command displays the opaque token as follows:

opaque,12,0x4f5041515545204441544100

path Token

The path token contains access path information for an object. This token contains the following fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as an path token

  • The path length

  • The absolute path to the object that is based on the real root of the system

The praudit command displays the path token, without the second field, as follows:

path,/etc/security/audit_user

The praudit -x command displays the path token as follows:

<path>/etc/security/audit_user</path>

The following figure shows the format of a path token.

Figure 31-4 path Token Format
The preceding context describes the graphic.

path_attr Token

The path_attr token contains access path information for an object. The access path specifies the sequence of attribute file objects below the path token object. Systems calls such as openat() access attribute files. For more information on attribute file objects, see the fsattr(5) man page.

The path_attr token contains the following fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as a path_attr token

  • A count that represents the number of sections of attribute file paths

  • count null-terminated strings

The praudit command displays the path_attr token as follows:

path_attr,1,attr_file_name

privilege Token

The privilege token records the use of privileges on a process. The privilege token is not recorded for privileges in the basic set. If a privilege has been removed from the basic set by administrative action, then the use of that privilege is recorded. For more information on privileges, see Privileges (Overview)

The privilege token contains the following fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as a privilege token

  • The length of the following field

  • The name of privilege set

  • The length of the following field

  • The list of privileges

The praudit command displays the privilege token as follows:

privilege,effective,

process Token

The process token contains information about a user who is associated with a process, such as the recipient of a signal. The process token has nine fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as a process token

  • The audit ID

  • The effective user ID

  • The effective group ID

  • The real user ID

  • The real group ID

  • The process ID

  • The audit session ID

  • A terminal ID that consists of a device ID and a machine ID

The audit ID, user ID, group ID, process ID, and session ID are long instead of short.


Note - The process token fields for the session ID, the real user ID, or the real group ID might be unavailable. The value is then set to -1.


Any token that contains a terminal ID has several variations. The praudit command hides these variations. So, the terminal ID is handled the same way for any token that contains a terminal ID. The terminal ID is either an IP address and port number, or a device ID. A device ID, such as the serial port that is connected to a modem, can be zero. The terminal ID is specified in one of several formats.

The terminal ID for device numbers is specified as follows:

  • 32-bit applications – 4-byte device number, 4 bytes unused

  • 64-bit applications – 8-byte device number, 4 bytes unused

In releases prior to the Solaris 8 release, the terminal ID for port numbers is specified as follows:

  • 32-bit applications – 4-byte port number, 4-byte IP address

  • 64-bit applications – 8-byte port number, 4-byte IP address

Since the Solaris 8 release, the terminal ID for port numbers is specified as follows:

  • 32-bit with IPv4 – 4-byte port number, 4-byte IP type, 4-byte IP address

  • 32-bit with IPv6 – 4-byte port number, 4-byte IP type, 16-byte IP address

  • 64-bit with IPv4 – 8-byte port number, 4-byte IP type, 4-byte IP address

  • 64-bit with IPv6 – 8-byte port number, 4-byte IP type, 16-byte IP address

The praudit command displays the process token as follows:

process,root,root,sys,root,sys,0,0,0,0.0.0.0

The following figure shows the format of a process token.

Figure 31-5 process Token Format
The preceding context describes the graphic.

return Token

The return token contains the return status of the system call (u_error) and the process return value (u_rval1). This token has three fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as a return token

  • The error status of the system call

  • The return value of the system call

The return token is always returned as part of kernel-generated audit records for system calls. In application auditing, this token indicates exit status and other return values.

The praudit command displays the return token for a system call as follows:

return,failure: Operation now in progress,-1

The praudit -x command displays the return token as follows:

<return errval="failure: Operation now in progress" retval="-1/">

sequence Token

The sequence token contains a sequence number. This token is useful for debugging. The sequence token has two fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as a sequence token

  • A 32-bit unsigned long field that contains the sequence number

The sequence number is incremented every time an audit record is added to the audit trail. The praudit command displays the sequence token as follows:

sequence,1292

The praudit -x command displays the sequence token as follows:

<sequence seq-num="1292"/>

Note - The sequence token is output only when the seq audit policy option is active.


socket Token

The socket token contains information that describes an Internet socket. In some instances, the token has four fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as a socket token

  • A socket type field that indicates the type of socket referenced, either TCP, UDP, or UNIX

  • The local port

  • The local IP address

The praudit command displays this instance of the socket token as follows:

socket,0x0002,0x83b1,localhost

In most instances, the token has eight fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as a socket token

  • The socket domain

  • A socket type field that indicates the type of socket referenced, either TCP, UDP, or UNIX

  • The local port

  • The address type, either IPv4 or IPv6

  • The local IP address

  • The remote port

  • The remote IP address

Since the Solaris 8 release, the Internet address can be displayed in IPv4 format or IPv6 format. The IPv4 address uses 4 bytes. The IPv6 address uses 1 byte to describe the address type, and 16 bytes to describe the address.

The praudit command displays the socket token as follows:

socket,0x0002,0x0002,0x83cf,example1,0x2383,server1.Subdomain.Domain.COM

The praudit -x command describes the socket token fields. The lines are wrapped for display purposes.

<socket sock_domain="0x0002" sock_type="0x0002" lport="0x83cf" 
laddr="example1" fport="0x2383" faddr="server1.Subdomain.Domain.COM"/>

subject Token

The subject token describes a user who performs or attempts to perform an operation. The format is the same as the process token. The subject token has nine fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as a subject token

  • The audit ID

  • The effective user ID

  • The effective group ID

  • The real user ID

  • The real group ID

  • The process ID

  • The audit session ID

  • A terminal ID that consists of a device ID and a machine ID

The audit ID, user ID, group ID, process ID, and session ID are long instead of short.


Note - The subject token fields for the session ID, the real user ID, or the real group ID might be unavailable. The value is then set to -1.


Any token that contains a terminal ID has several variations. The praudit command hides these variations. So, the terminal ID is handled the same way for any token that contains a terminal ID. The terminal ID is either an IP address and port number, or a device ID. A device ID, such as the serial port that is connected to a modem, can be zero. The terminal ID is specified in one of several formats.

The terminal ID for device numbers is specified as follows:

  • 32-bit applications – 4-byte device number, 4 bytes unused

  • 64-bit applications – 8-byte device number, 4 bytes unused

In releases prior to the Solaris 8 release, the terminal ID for port numbers is specified as follows:

  • 32-bit applications – 4-byte port number, 4-byte IP address

  • 64-bit applications – 8-byte port number, 4-byte IP address

Since the Solaris 8 release, the terminal ID for port numbers is specified as follows:

  • 32-bit with IPv4 – 4-byte port number, 4-byte IP type, 4-byte IP address

  • 32-bit with IPv6 – 4-byte port number, 4-byte IP type, 16-byte IP address

  • 64-bit with IPv4 – 8-byte port number, 4-byte IP type, 4-byte IP address

  • 64-bit with IPv6 – 8-byte port number, 4-byte IP type, 16-byte IP address

The subject token is always returned as part of kernel-generated audit records for system calls. The praudit command displays the subject token as follows:

subject,jdoe,root,staff,root,staff,424,223,0 0 example1

The following figure shows the format of the subject token.

Figure 31-6 subject Token Format
The preceding context describes the graphic.

text Token

The text token contains a text string. This token has three fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as a text token

  • The length of the text string

  • The text string itself

The praudit command displays the text token as follows:

text,logout jdoe

trailer Token

The two tokens, header and trailer, are special in that they distinguish the end points of an audit record and bracket all the other tokens. A header token begins an audit record. A trailer token ends an audit record. The trailer token is an optional token. The trailer token is added as the last token of each record only when the trail audit policy option has been set.

When an audit record is generated with trailers turned on, the auditreduce command can verify that the trailer correctly points back to the record header. The trailer token supports backward seeks of the audit trail.

The trailer token has three fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as a trailer token

  • A pad number to aid in marking the end of the record

  • The total number of characters in the audit record, including both the header and trailer tokens

The praudit command displays the trailer token, without the second field, as follows:

trailer,136

uauth Token

The uauth token records the use of authorization with a command or action.

The uauth token contains the following fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as a uauth token

  • The length of the text in the following field

  • A list of authorizations

The praudit command displays the uauth token as follows:

use of authorization,solaris.admin.printer.delete

zonename Token

The zonename token records the zone in which the audit event occurred. The string “global” indicates audit events that occur in the global zone.

The zonename token contains the following fields:

  • A token ID that identifies this token as a zonename token

  • The length of the text in the following field

  • The name of the zone

The praudit command displays the zonename token as follows:

zonename,graphzone
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