CPU Share Examples
Assume you have a system with two CPUs running two parallel CPU-bound workloads
called A and B, respectively. Each workload is running as a separate project.
The projects have been configured so that project A is assigned SA shares, and
project B is assigned SB shares.
On average, under the traditional TS scheduler, each of the workloads that is
running on the system would be given the same amount of CPU
resources. Each workload would get 50 percent of the system's capacity.
When run under the control of the FSS scheduler with SA=SB, these
projects are also given approximately the same amounts of CPU resources. However, if
the projects are given different numbers of shares, their CPU resource allocations are
The next three examples illustrate how shares work in different configurations. These examples
show that shares are only mathematically accurate for representing the usage if demand
meets or exceeds available resources.
Example 1: Two CPU-Bound Processes in Each Project
If A and B each have two CPU-bound processes, and SA = 1
and SB = 3, then the total number of shares is 1 +
3 = 4. In this configuration, given sufficient CPU demand, projects A and
B are allocated 25 percent and 75 percent of CPU resources, respectively.
Example 2: No Competition Between Projects
If A and B have only one CPU-bound process each, and SA =
1 and SB = 100, then the total number of shares is 101.
Each project cannot use more than one CPU because each project has only
one running process. Because no competition exists between projects for CPU resources in
this configuration, projects A and B are each allocated 50 percent of
all CPU resources. In this configuration, CPU share values are irrelevant. The projects'
allocations would be the same (50/50), even if both projects were assigned zero
Example 3: One Project Unable to Run
If A and B have two CPU-bound processes each, and project A is given
1 share and project B is given 0 shares, then project B is
not allocated any CPU resources and project A is allocated all CPU resources.
Processes in B always run at system priority 0, so they will never be
able to run because processes in project A always have higher priorities.