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Solaris Express Installation Guide: Network-Based Installations
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(Optional) Protecting Data by Using HTTPS

To protect your data during the transfer from the WAN boot server to the client, you can use HTTP over Secure Sockets Layer (HTTPS). To use the more secure installation configuration that is described in Secure WAN Boot Installation Configuration, you must enable your web server to use HTTPS.

If you do not want to perform a secure WAN boot, skip the procedures in this section. To continue preparing for your less secure installation, see Creating the Custom JumpStart Installation Files.

To enable the web server software on the WAN boot server to use HTTPS, you must perform the following tasks.

  • Activate Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) support in your web server software.

    The processes for enabling SSL support and client authentication vary by web server. This document does not describe how to enable these security features on your web server. For information about these features, see the following documentation.

    • For information about activating SSL on the SunONE and iPlanet web servers, see the SunONE and iPlanet documentation collections on https://docs.sun.com.

    • For information about activating SSL on the Apache web server, see the Apache Documentation Project at https://httpd.apache.org/docs-project/.

    • If you are using web server software that is not listed in the previous list, see your web server software documentation.

  • Install digital certificates on the WAN boot server.

    For information about using digital certificates with WAN boot, see (Optional) To Use Digital Certificates for Server and Client Authentication.

  • Provide a trusted certificate to the client.

    For instructions about how to create a trusted certificate, see (Optional) To Use Digital Certificates for Server and Client Authentication.

  • Create a hashing key and an encryption key.

    For instructions about how to create keys, see (Optional) To Create a Hashing Key and an Encryption Key.

  • (Optional) Configure the web server software to support client authentication.

    For information about how to configure your web server to support client authentication, see your web server documentation.

This section describes how to use digital certificates and keys in your WAN boot installation.

(Optional) To Use Digital Certificates for Server and Client Authentication

The WAN boot installation method can use PKCS#12 files to perform an installation over HTTPS with server or both client and server authentication. For requirements and guidelines about using PKCS#12 files, see Digital Certificate Requirements.

To use a PKCS#12 file in a WAN boot installation, you perform the following tasks.

  • Split the PKCS#12 file into separate SSL private key and trusted certificate files.

  • Insert the trusted certificate in the client's truststore file in the /etc/netboot hierarchy. The trusted certificate instructs the client to trust the server.

  • (Optional) Insert the contents of the SSL private key file in the client's keystore file in the /etc/netboot hierarchy.

The wanbootutil command provides options to perform the tasks in the previous list.

If you do not want to perform a secure WAN boot, skip this procedure. To continue preparing for your less secure installation, see Creating the Custom JumpStart Installation Files.

Follow these steps to create a trusted certificate and a client private key.

Before You Begin

Before you split a PKCS#12 file, create the appropriate subdirectories of the /etc/netboot hierarchy on the WAN boot server.

  1. Assume the same user role as the web server user on the WAN boot server.
  2. Extract the trusted certificate from the PKCS#12 file. Insert the certificate in the client's truststore file in the /etc/netboot hierarchy.
    # wanbootutil p12split -i p12cert \
    -t /etc/netboot/net-ip/client-ID/truststore
    p12split

    Option to wanbootutil command that splits a PKCS#12 file into separate private key and certificate files.

    -i p12cert

    Specifies the name of the PKCS#12 file to split.

    -t /etc/netboot/net-ip/client-ID/truststore

    Inserts the certificate in the client's truststore file. net-ip is the IP address of the client's subnet. client-ID can be a user-defined ID or the DHCP client ID.

  3. (Optional) Decide if you want to require client authentication.
    • If no, go to (Optional) To Create a Hashing Key and an Encryption Key.
    • If yes, continue with the following steps.
      1. Insert the client certificate in the client's certstore.
        # wanbootutil p12split -i p12cert -c \
        /etc/netboot/net-ip/client-ID/certstore -k keyfile
        p12split

        Option to wanbootutil command that splits a PKCS#12 file into separate private key and certificate files.

        -i p12cert

        Specifies the name of the PKCS#12 file to split.

        -c /etc/netboot/net-ip/client-ID/certstore

        Inserts the client's certificate in the client's certstore. net-ip is the IP address of the client's subnet. client-ID can be a user-defined ID or the DHCP client ID.

        -k keyfile

        Specifies the name of the client's SSL private key file to create from the split PKCS#12 file.

      2. Insert the private key in the client's keystore.
        # wanbootutil keymgmt -i -k keyfile \
        -s /etc/netboot/net-ip/client-ID/keystore -o type=rsa
        keymgmt -i

        Inserts an SSL private key in the client's keystore

        -k keyfile

        Specifies the name of the client's private key file that was created in the previous step

        -s /etc/netboot/net-ip/client-ID/keystore

        Specifies the path to the client's keystore

        -o type=rsa

        Specifies the key type as RSA

Example 11-6 Creating a Trusted Certificate for Server Authentication

In the following example, you use a PKCS#12 file to install client 010003BA152A42 on subnet 192.168.198.0. This command sample extracts a certificate from a PKCS#12 file that is named client.p12. The command then places the contents of the trusted certificate in the client's truststore file.

Before you execute these commands, you must first assume the same user role as the web server user. In this example, the web server user role is nobody.

server# su nobody
Password:
nobody# wanbootutil p12split -i client.p12 \
-t /etc/netboot/192.168.198.0/010003BA152A42/truststore
nobody# chmod 600 /etc/netboot/192.168.198.0/010003BA152A42/truststore
More Information
Continuing the WAN Boot Installation

After you create a digital certificate, create a hashing key and an encryption key. For instructions, see(Optional) To Create a Hashing Key and an Encryption Key.

See Also

For more information about how to create trusted certificates, see the man page wanbootutil(1M).

(Optional) To Create a Hashing Key and an Encryption Key

If you want to use HTTPS to transmit your data, you must create a HMAC SHA1 hashing key and an encryption key. If you plan to install over a semi-private network, you might not want to encrypt the installation data. You can use a HMAC SHA1 hashing key to check the integrity of the wanboot program.

By using the wanbootutil keygen command, you can generate these keys and store them in the appropriate /etc/netboot directory.

If you do not want to perform a secure WAN boot, skip this procedure. To continue preparing for your less secure installation, see Creating the Custom JumpStart Installation Files.

To create a hashing key and an encryption key, follow these steps.

  1. Assume the same user role as the web server user on the WAN boot server.
  2. Create the master HMAC SHA1 key.
    # wanbootutil keygen -m
    keygen -m

    Creates the master HMAC SHA1 key for the WAN boot server

  3. Create the HMAC SHA1 hashing key for the client from the master key.
    # wanbootutil keygen -c -o [net=net-ip,{cid=client-ID,}]type=sha1
    -c

    Creates the client's hashing key from the master key.

    -o

    Indicates that additional options are included for the wanbootutil keygen command.

    (Optional) net=net-ip

    Specifies the IP address for the client's subnet. If you do not use the net option, the key is stored in the /etc/netboot/keystore file, and can be used by all WAN boot clients.

    (Optional) cid=client-ID

    Specifies the client ID. The client ID can be a user-defined ID or the DHCP client ID. The cid option must be preceded by a valid net= value. If you do not specify the cid option with the net option, the key is stored in the /etc/netboot/net-ip/keystore file. This key can be used by all WAN boot clients on the net-ip subnet.

    type=sha1

    Instructs the wanbootutil keygen utility to create a HMAC SHA1 hashing key for the client.

  4. Decide if you need to create an encryption key for the client.

    You need to create an encryption key to perform a WAN boot installation over HTTPS. Before the client establishes an HTTPS connection with the WAN boot server, the WAN boot server transmits encrypted data and information to the client. The encryption key enables the client to decrypt this information and use this information during the installation.

    • If you are performing a more secure WAN installation over HTTPS with server authentication, continue.

    • If you only want to check the integrity of the wanboot program, you do not need to create an encryption key. Go to Step 6.

  5. Create an encryption key for the client.
    # wanbootutil keygen -c -o [net=net-ip,{cid=client-ID,}]type=key-type
    -c

    Creates the client's encryption key.

    -o

    Indicates that additional options are included for the wanbootutil keygen command.

    (Optional) net=net-ip

    Specifies the network IP address for the client. If you do not use the net option, the key is stored in the /etc/netboot/keystore file, and can be used by all WAN boot clients.

    (Optional) cid=client-ID

    Specifies the client ID. The client ID can be a user-defined ID, or the DHCP client ID. The cid option must be preceded by a valid net= value. If you do not specify the cid option with the net option, the key is stored in the /etc/netboot/net-ip/keystore file. This key can be used by all WAN boot clients on the net-ip subnet.

    type=key-type

    Instructs the wanbootutil keygen utility to create an encryption key for the client. key-type can have a value of 3des or aes.

  6. Install the keys on the client system.

    For instructions about how to install keys on the client, see Installing Keys on the Client.

Example 11-7 Creating Required Keys for WAN Boot Installation Over HTTPS

The following example creates a master HMAC SHA1 key for the WAN boot server. This example also creates a HMAC SHA1 hashing key and 3DES encryption key for client 010003BA152A42 on subnet 192.168.198.0.

Before you execute these commands, you must first assume the same user role as the web server user. In this example, the web server user role is nobody.

server# su nobody
Password:
nobody# wanbootutil keygen -m
nobody# wanbootutil keygen -c -o net=192.168.198.0,cid=010003BA152A42,type=sha1
nobody# wanbootutil keygen -c -o net=192.168.198.0,cid=010003BA152A42,type=3des
More Information
Continuing the WAN Boot Installation

After you create a hashing and an encryption key, you must create the installation files. For instructions, see Creating the Custom JumpStart Installation Files.

See Also

For overview information on hashing keys and encryption keys, see Protecting Data During a WAN Boot Installation.

For more information about how to create hashing and encryption keys, see the man page wanbootutil(1M).

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