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Solaris Express Installation Guide: Solaris Flash Archives (Creation and Installation)
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Creating a Solaris Flash Archive

You can create an archive with an initial installation that overwrites all the files on the clone system, or you can create a differential archive that only overwrites the changes that are specified. For an overview of a differential archive, see Planning to Create the Solaris Flash Differential Archive for an Update.


Caution - A Solaris Flash archive cannot be properly created when a non-global zone is installed. The Solaris Flash feature is not compatible with the Solaris Zones partitioning technology. If you create a Solaris Flash archive, the resulting archive is not installed properly when the archive is deployed under these conditions:

  • The archive is created in a non-global zone

  • The archive is created in a global zone that has non-global zones installed


To Create a Solaris Flash Archive for an Initial Installation

After you install the master system, create a Solaris Flash archive to use to install other systems.

  1. Become superuser or assume an equivalent role.

    Roles contain authorizations and privileged commands. For more information about roles, see Configuring RBAC (Task Map) in System Administration Guide: Security Services.

  2. Boot the master system and run it in as inactive a state as possible.

    When possible, run the system in single-user mode. If that is not possible, shut down any applications that you want to archive and any applications that require extensive operating system resources.

    You can create a Solaris Flash archive while the master system is running in multiuser mode, single-user mode, or while booted from one of the following:

    • Solaris Operating System DVD.

    • Solaris Software - 1 CD.

    • An image of the Solaris Software. If you are using CD media, the image could include the Solaris Languages CDs if needed.

  3. To create the archive, use the flarcreate command.
    # flarcreate -n name options path/filename
    name

    The name that you give the archive. The name you specify is the value of the content_name keyword.

    options

    For a description of options, see flar Command.

    path

    The path to the directory in which you want to save the archive file. If you do not specify a path, flarcreate saves the archive file in the current directory.

    filename

    The name of the archive file.

    • If the archive creation is successful, the flarcreate command returns an exit code of 0.

    • If the archive creation fails, the flarcreate command returns a nonzero exit code.

  4. Make a copy of the archive and save it. The copy can be used in the future to update a clone system with a differential archive.

Creating a Solaris Flash Archive (Examples)

File systems can be copied exactly or can be customized by excluding some directories or files. You can achieve the same results by using different options. Use the options that best suit your environment.

The file systems in the following examples have been greatly simplified for clarification. Rather than use file system names such as /var, /usr, or /opt, the master system file structure for these examples is the following:

/aaa/bbb/ccc/ddd /aaa/bbb/fff /aaa/eee /ggg

Caution - Use the flarcreate file-exclusion options with caution. If you exclude some directories, others that you were unaware of might be left in the archive, such as system configuration files. The system would then be inconsistent and the installation would not work. Excluding directories and files is best used with data that can easily be removed without disrupting the system, such as large data files.


Creating a Solaris Flash Archive (Various Examples)
Example 3-6 Creating an Exact Duplicate Archive

In this example, the archive is named archive1. This archive is copied exactly from the master system and then compressed. The archive is an exact duplicate of the master system and is stored in archive1.flar.

# flarcreate -n archive1 -c archive1.flar

To check the file structure of the archive, type the following.

# flar info -l archive1.flarlost+found
export
export/home
export/home/lost+found
var
var/sadm
var/sadm/install
var/sadm/install/admin
var/sadm/install/admin/default
var/sadm/install/logs
var/sadm/install/contents
var/sadm/install/.lockfile
var/sadm/install/.pkg.lock
var/sadm/pkg
var/sadm/pkg/SUNWocfd
var/sadm/pkg/SUNWocfd/install
var/sadm/pkg/SUNWocfd/install/copyright
var/sadm/pkg/SUNWocfd/save
var/sadm/pkg/SUNWocfd/save/pspool
var/sadm/pkg/SUNWocfd/save/pspool/SUNWocfd
.....
.....
    usr/bin/sparcv7
usr/bin/sparcv7/savecore
usr/bin/sparcv7/gcore
....
....
usr/lib/diff3prog
usr/lib/madv.so.1
usr/lib/mpss.so.1
usr/lib/cpu
usr/lib/cpu/sparcv8plus
....
....
devices/pseudo/[email protected]:udp6
devices/pseudo/[email protected]:udp
devices/pseudo/[email protected]:tcp
devices/pseudo/[email protected]:iwscn
devices/pseudo/[email protected]:wscons
devices/pseudo/[email protected]:tcp6
devices/pseudo/[email protected]:sctp6
var/fm/fmd/ckpt
var/fm/fmd/rsrc
kernel/drv/st.conf
kernel/drv/st.conf
kernel/drv/st.conf
kernel/drv/st.conf
#
Example 3-7 Creating an Archive With the cpio Copy Method for Backward Compatibility

In this example, the archive must be a cpio archive because of backward compatibility issues. The default pax copy method is not used, but the -L cpio option is used to create a cpio archive. When you use the -L cpio option, individual files cannot be over 4 Gbytes. The archive is named archive1. This archive is copied exactly from the master system and then compressed. The archive is an exact duplicate of the master system and is stored in archive1.flar.

# flarcreate -L cpio -n archive1 -c archive1.flar

To check the file structure of the archive, type the following.

# flar info -l archive1.flar
aaa
aaa/bbb
aaa/bbb/ccc
aaa/bbb/ccc/ddd
aaa/bbb/fff
aaa/eee
aaa/eee
ggg
Example 3-8 Creating an Archive From an Alternate root (/) File System

In this example, the archive is named archive4. This archive is copied exactly from the master system and then compressed. The archive is an exact duplicate of the master system and is stored in archive4.flar. The -R option is used to create the archive from another directory tree.

# flarcreate -n archive4 -c -R /x/yy/zz archive4.flar
Example 3-9 Creating an Archive and Adding Keywords to Describe the Archive

In this example, the archive is named archive3. This archive is copied exactly from the master system and then compressed. Options add descriptions to the archive-identification section, which can help you to identify the archive later. For information about keywords, their values, and formats, see Solaris Flash Keywords.

# flarcreate -n archive3 -i 20000131221409 -m pumbaa \ -e "Solaris 8 Print Server" -a "Mighty Matt" -U "Internal Finance" \ -T server archive3.flar 

After the archive is created, you can access the archive identification section that contains the detailed description. An example of an archive identification section follows.

section_begin=identification
     files_archived_method=pax     files_compressed_method=compress
     files_archived_size=259323342
     files_unarchived_size=591238111
     creation_date=20000131221409
     creation_master=pumbaa
     content_name=Finance Print Server
     content_type=server
     content_description=Solaris 8 Print Server
     content_author=Mighty Matt
     content_architectures=sun4u
     creation_node=pumbaa
     creation_hardware_class=sun4u
     creation_platform=SUNW,Sun-Fire
     creation_processor=sparc
     creation_release=5.9
     creation_os_name=SunOS
     creation_os_version=s81_49
     x-department=Internal Finance
Creating a Solaris Flash Archive and Customizing Files (Examples)
Example 3-10 Creating an Archive and Excluding and Including Files and Directories

In this example, the archive is named archive2. This archive is copied from the master system but is not an exact copy. The content under the /aaa directory is excluded, but the content in /aaa/bbb/ccc remains.

# flarcreate -n archive2 -x /aaa -y /aaa/bbb/ccc archive2.flar

To check the file structure of the archive, type the following. The excluded directories that include copied files appear, but only the files that were restored contain data.

# flar info -l aaa
aaa
aaa/bbb/ccc
aaa/bbb/ccc/ddd
aaa/bbb
ggg
Example 3-11 Creating an Archive Excluding and Including Files and Directories by Using Lists

In this example, the archive is named archive5. This archive is copied from the master system but is not an exact copy.

The exclude file contains the following list:

/aaa

The include file contains the following list:

/aaa/bbb/ccc

The content under the /aaa directory is excluded, but the content in /aaa/bbb/ccc remains.

# flarcreate -n archive5 -X exclude -f include archive5.flar

To check about the file structure of the archive, type the following. The excluded directories that include copied files appear, but only the files that were restored contain data.

# flar info -l archive5.flar
aaa
aaa/bbb/ccc
aaa/bbb/ccc/ddd
aaa/bbb
ggg
Example 3-12 Creating an Archive Excluding Files and Directories by Using a List and Restoring a Directory

You can combine options -x, -y, -X and -f. In this example, options -X and -y are combined. The archive is named archive5. This archive is copied from the master system but is not an exact copy.

The exclude file contains the following list:

/aaa

The -y option restores the /aaa/bbb/ccc directory. The following command produces the archive.

# flarcreate -n archive5 -X exclude -y /aaa/bbb/ccc archive5.flar

To check about the file structure of the archive, type the following. The excluded directories that include copied files appear, but only the files that were restored contain data.

# flar info -l archive5.flar
aaa
aaa/bbb
aaa/bbb/ccc
aaa/bbb/ccc/ddd
ggg
Example 3-13 Creating an Archive Excluding and Including Files and Directories by Using a List With the -z Option

In this example, the archive is named archive3. It is copied from the master system but is not an exact copy. The files and directories to be selected are included in filter1 file. Within the files, the directories are marked with a minus (-) or a plus (+) to indicate which files to exclude and restore. In this example, the directory /aaa is excluded with a minus and the subdirectory /aaa/bbb/ccc is restored with a plus. The filter1 file contains the following list.

- /aaa
+ /aaa/bbb/ccc

The following command produces the archive.

# flarcreate -n archive3 -z filter1 archive3.flar 

To check the file structure of the archive, type the following command. The excluded directories that include copied files appear, but only the files that were restored contain data.

# flar info -l archive3.flar
aaa
aaa/bbb
aaa/bbb/ccc
aaa/bbb/ccc/ddd
ggg

To Create a Solaris Flash Differential Archive With an Updated Master Image

Before creating a differential archive, you need two images to compare: an unchanged master image and an updated master image. One image is the unchanged master image that has been kept unchanged. This image was stored and needs to be accessed. The second image is the unchanged master image that is updated with minor changes. The root (/) file system is the default for the new image, but you can access this image if it has been stored elsewhere. After you have the two images, you can create a differential archive, which contains only the differences between the two images. The differential archive can then be installed on clones that were installed previously with the unchanged master image.

  1. Prepare the master system with changes. Before changes are made, the master system should be running a duplicate of the original archive.

    Note - A copy of the unchanged master image must be kept protected from changes and available for mounting later.


  2. Update the unchanged master image with any of the following changes.
    • Delete packages.

    • Add packages or patches.

    • Modify configuration files.

    • Add support for peripheral devices on the clone system.

  3. (Optional) Create custom scripts. See Creating Customization Scripts.
  4. Become superuser or assume an equivalent role.

    Roles contain authorizations and privileged commands. For more information about roles, see Configuring RBAC (Task Map) in System Administration Guide: Security Services.

  5. Deliver the unchanged master image in a mount point.
    • If the unchanged master image is stored on an inactive boot environment, retrieve it by using the lumount command.

      # lumount BE_name mountpoint
      BE_name

      Specifies the boot environment name where the unchanged master image is stored

      mountpoint

      Specifies a root (/) file system where the image is stored

      In the following example, the inactive boot environment is named unchanged_master1. The mount point is the directory /a on the master system.

      # lumount unchanged_master1 /a
    • If the image is stored on a clone, mount the clone by using NFS.

      1. On the master system, share the clone's root (/) file system and give the master root permissions on the clone system.

        Use either the sharemgr utility or the share command as follows.


        Note - Starting with the 5/07 Developer release, the sharemgr utility introduces the concept of share groups. See sharemgr Command in System Administration Guide: Network Services.


        • # share -F nfs -o rw,root=master_system "/"

        • # sharemgr add-share -d master_system -s "/" default

          # sharemgr set -P nfs -S sys -p rw="*" -s "/" default

          # sharemgr set -P nfs -S sys -p root=master_system -s "/" default

        master_system is the name of the master system.

      2. On the master system, mount the clone.

        # mount -F nfs clone_system:/ master_dir
        clone_system

        Specifies the name of the system to be mounted

        master_dir

        Specifies the directory where the unchanged master image is stored

    • If you saved the image with the ufsdump command, use the ufsrestore command to retrieve a copy. For information about how to use these commands, see Chapter 27, UFS Backup and Restore Commands (Reference), in System Administration Guide: Devices and File Systems.

  6. Create the differential archive.
    # flarcreate -n archive_name -A unchanged_master_image_dir \ options path/filename
    archive_name

    Specifies the name that you give the archive. The archive_name you specify is the value of the content_name keyword. The name is listed in the archive-identification section.

    -A unchanged_master_image_dir

    Creates a differential archive by comparing a new system image with the image that is specified by the unchanged_master_image_dir argument. By default, the new system image is root (/). You can change the default with the -R option. unchanged_master_image_dir is a directory where the unchanged system image is stored or mounted through UFS, NFS, or the lumount command.

    You can include and exclude some files by using the options for contents selection. For a list of options, see flar Command.

    options

    For a description of options, see flar Command.

    path

    Specifies the path to the directory in which you want to save the archive file. If you do not specify a path, flarcreate saves the archive file in the current directory.

    filename

    Specifies the name of the archive file.

    • If the differential archive creation is successful, the flarcreate command returns an exit code of 0.

    • If the differential archive creation fails, the flarcreate command returns a nonzero exit code.

    For procedures about installing an archive, see To Prepare to Install a Solaris Flash Archive With a Custom JumpStart Installation in Solaris Express Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart and Advanced Installations.

Example 3-14 Creating a Differential Archive With the New Master Image on the Master System

In this example, the directory for unchanged master image is named unchanged_master1. The new master image that contains changes is the root (/) directory. The new master image is compared to the unchanged master image and the resulting differential archive is then compressed. The differential archive is stored in diffarchive1.flar file. The archive contains files that are to be deleted, changed, or added when installed.

# flarcreate -n diffarchive1 -A /a/unchanged_master1 -c diffarchive1.flar
Example 3-15 Creating a Differential Archive With the Images Stored on an Inactive Boot Environment

In this example, the unchanged master image, unchanged_master1, is stored on an inactive boot environment and is accessed by mounting the boot environment. The new master image is the root (/) directory. The new master image is compared to the unchanged master and the resulting differential archive is then compressed. The archive is stored in diffarchive4.flar. The archive contains files that are to be deleted, changed, or added when installed.

# lumount unchanged_master1 /a
# flarcreate -n diffarchive4 -A /a -c diffarchive4.flar

To Create a Solaris Flash Differential Archive by Using Solaris Live Upgrade

To manage system updates, you can use Solaris Live Upgrade to copy the OS, which creates a new boot environment. This copy can be compared to the master system that has been updated with minor changes. The resulting Solaris Flash differential archive can then be installed on clone systems.

For more information about Solaris Live Upgrade, see Chapter 2, Solaris Live Upgrade (Overview), in Solaris Express Installation Guide: Solaris Live Upgrade and Upgrade Planning.

  1. From the unchanged master system, create a new boot environment by using the lucreate command.

    This new boot environment is an exact copy of the master system and can be used to create the differential archive.

  2. Become superuser or assume an equivalent role.

    Roles contain authorizations and privileged commands. For more information about roles, see Configuring RBAC (Task Map) in System Administration Guide: Security Services.

  3. Check the status of the two boot environments.
    # lustatus copy_BE
    
    boot environment   Is        Active  Active     Can        Copy
    Name               Complete  Now     OnReboot   Delete     Status
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    master_BE          yes       yes     yes        no       -     
    copy_BE            yes       no      no         yes      -  
  4. Update the master image with any of the following changes.
    • Delete packages.

    • Add packages or patches.

    • Modify configuration files.

    • Add support for peripheral devices on the clone system.

  5. (Optional) Create custom scripts. See Creating Customization Scripts.
  6. Create the differential archive.
    1. Mount the newly created boot environment.
      # lumount BE_name /a
    2. Create the differential archive by comparing the master system to the boot environment.
       # flarcreate -n archive_name -A new_BE_dir\ options path/filename
      archive_name

      Specifies the name that you give the archive.

      -A new_BE_dir

      Creates a differential archive by comparing a new system image with the image that is specified by the new BE_dir argument.

      options

      For a list of options, see flar Command.

      path

      Specifies the path to the directory in which you want to save the archive file. If you do not specify a path, flarcreate saves the archive file in the current directory.

      filename

      Specifies the name of the archive file.

    3. Unmount the new boot environment.
      # luumount copy_BE

    The flarcreate command returns an exit code.

    • If the creation is successful, an exit code of 0 is returned.

    • If a failure occurs, a nonzero exit code is returned.

  7. Install the Solaris Flash differential archive by using a JumpStart profile.

    The clone systems that are to be installed must be a duplicate of the original master system or the installation fails.

    The following example profile installs a differential archive, test.diff, on the device c1t1d0s0.

    JumpStart profile
    -----------------------
    install_type  flash_update
    archive_location http server /rw/test.diff
    root_device c1t1d0s0
Example 3-16 Creating a Differential Archive by Using Solaris Live Upgrade

master_BE is the name of the current boot environment. copy_BE is the name of the new boot environment. The file systems root (/) and /usr are placed on s0 and s3. The lustatus command reports that the new boot environment copy is complete. The SUNWman package is added to the master system. After the master system is updated by adding the SUNWman package, the flarcreate command creates a differential archive by comparing the changed master and the unchanged new boot environment.

# lucreate -c master_BE -m /:/dev/dsk/c0t1d0s0:ufs \ -m /usr:/dev/dsk/c0t1d0s3:ufs -n copy_BE
# lustatus
# pkgadd SUNWman
# lumount copy_BE /a
# flarcreate -n test.diff -c -A /a /net/server/export/test.diff
# luumount copy_BE

Install the differential archive on clone systems. For procedures about installing an archive, see To Prepare to Install a Solaris Flash Archive With a Custom JumpStart Installation in Solaris Express Installation Guide: Custom JumpStart and Advanced Installations.

The following image shows the creation of the new boot environment by using the lucreate command.

The context describes the illustration.
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