Device Driver Basics
This section introduces you to device drivers and their entry points on the
What Is a Device Driver?
A device driver is a kernel module that is responsible for managing the low-level
I/O operations of a hardware device. Device drivers are written with standard interfaces
that the kernel can call to interface with a device. Device drivers can
also be software-only, emulating a device that exists only in software, such as
RAM disks, buses, and pseudo-terminals.
A device driver contains all the device-specific code necessary to communicate with a
device. This code includes a standard set of interfaces to the rest of
the system. This interface shields the kernel from device specifics just as the
system call interface protects application programs from platform specifics. Application programs and the
rest of the kernel need little, if any, device-specific code to address the
device. In this way, device drivers make the system more portable and easier
When the Solaris operating system (Solaris OS) is initialized, devices identify themselves and
are organized into the device tree, a hierarchy of devices. In effect, the
device tree is a hardware model for the kernel. An individual device driver
is represented as a node in the tree with no children. This type
of node is referred to as a leaf driver. A driver that provides services
to other drivers is called a bus nexus driver and is shown as a
node with children. As part of the boot process, physical devices are mapped
to drivers in the tree so that the drivers can be located when
needed. For more information on how the Solaris OS accommodates devices, see Chapter 2, Solaris Kernel and Device Tree.
Device drivers are classified by how they handle I/O. Device drivers fall into
three broad categories:
Block device drivers – For cases where handling I/O data as asynchronous chunks is appropriate. Typically, block drivers are used to manage devices with physically addressable storage media, such as disks.
Character device drivers – For devices that perform I/O on a continuous flow of bytes.
Note - A driver can be both block and character at the same time if you set up two different interfaces to the file system. See Devices as Special Files.
Included in the character category are drivers that use the STREAMS model (see below), programmed I/O, direct memory access, SCSI buses, USB, and other network I/O.
STREAMS device drivers – Subset of character drivers that uses the streamio(7I) set of routines for character I/O within the kernel.
What Is a Device Driver Entry Point?
An entry point is a function within a device driver that can be called
by an external entity to get access to some driver functionality or to
operate a device. Each device driver provides a standard set of functions as
entry points. For the complete list of entry points for all driver types,
see the Intro(9E) man page. The Solaris kernel uses entry points for these
general task areas:
Loading and unloading the driver
Autoconfiguring the device – Autoconfiguration is the process of loading a device driver's code and static data into memory so that the driver is registered with the system.
Providing I/O services for the driver
Drivers for different types of devices have different sets of entry points according
to the kinds of operations the devices perform. A driver for a memory-mapped
character-oriented device, for example, supports a devmap(9E) entry point, while a block driver
does not support this entry.
Use a prefix based on the name of your driver to give driver
functions unique names. Typically, this prefix is the name of the driver, such
as xx_open() for the open(9E) routine of driver xx. See Use a Unique Prefix to Avoid Kernel Symbol Collisions for more information.
In subsequent examples in this book, xx is used as the driver prefix.