TLS uses X.509 certificates to carry client and server identities. All servers are required to have valid certificates, whereas client certificates are optional. Clients must have a valid certificate in order to authenticate via SASL EXTERNAL. For more information on creating and managing certificates, see the OpenSSL documentation.
The DN of a server certificate must use the CN attribute to name the server, and the CN must carry the server's fully qualified domain name. Additional alias names and wildcards may be present in the subjectAltName certificate extension. More details on server certificate names are in RFC4513.
The DN of a client certificate can be used directly as an authentication DN. Since X.509 is a part of the X.500 standard and LDAP is also based on X.500, both use the same DN formats and generally the DN in a user's X.509 certificate should be identical to the DN of their LDAP entry. However, sometimes the DNs may not be exactly the same, and so the mapping facility described in Mapping Authentication Identities can be applied to these DNs as well.