The primary purpose of this slapd(8) backend is to PRESENT information stored in some RDBMS as an LDAP subtree without any programming (some SQL and maybe stored procedures can’t be considered programming, anyway ;).
That is, for example, when you (some ISP) have account information you use in an RDBMS, and want to use modern solutions that expect such information in LDAP (to authenticate users, make email lookups etc.). Or you want to synchronize or distribute information between different sites/applications that use RDBMSes and/or LDAP. Or whatever else...
It is NOT designed as a general-purpose backend that uses RDBMS instead of BerkeleyDB (as the standard BDB backend does), though it can be used as such with several limitations. Please see LDAP vs RDBMS for discussion.
The idea is to use some meta-information to translate LDAP queries to SQL queries, leaving relational schema untouched, so that old applications can continue using it without any modifications. This allows SQL and LDAP applications to interoperate without replication, and exchange data as needed.
The SQL backend is designed to be tunable to virtually any relational schema without having to change source (through that meta-information mentioned). Also, it uses ODBC to connect to RDBMSes, and is highly configurable for SQL dialects RDBMSes may use, so it may be used for integration and distribution of data on different RDBMSes, OSes, hosts etc., in other words, in highly heterogeneous environment.
This backend is experimental.