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Debian GNU/Linux Reference Guide
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8.6.29 Network testing basics

Install netkit-ping, traceroute, dnsutils, ipchains (for 2.2 kernel), iptables (for 2.4 kernel), and net-tools packages and:

     $ ping            # check Internet connection
     $ traceroute      # trace IP packets
     $ ifconfig                  # check host config
     $ route -n                  # check routing config
     $ dig [] host.dom [{a|mx|any}] |less
           # check host.dom DNS records by 
           # for a {a|mx|any} record
     $ ipchains -L -n |less      # check packet filter (2.2 kernel)
     $ iptables -L -n |less      # check packet filter (2.4 kernel)
     $ netstat -a                # find all open ports
     $ netstat -l --inet         # find listening ports
     $ netstat -ln --tcp         # find listening TCP ports (numeric)

Debian GNU/Linux Reference Guide
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