changequote is Evil
The temptation is often high to bypass proper quotation, in particular
when it's late at night. Then, many experienced Autoconf hackers
finally surrender to the dark side of the force and use the ultimate
The M4 builtin
changequote belongs to a set of primitives that
allow one to adjust the syntax of the language to adjust it to one's
needs. For instance, by default M4 uses ‘`’ and ‘'’ as
quotes, but in the context of shell programming (and actually of most
programming languages), that's about the worst choice one can make:
because of strings and back-quoted expressions in shell code (such as
‘'this'’ and ‘`that`’), because of literal characters in usual
programming languages (as in ‘'0'’), there are many unbalanced
‘`’ and ‘'’. Proper M4 quotation then becomes a nightmare, if
not impossible. In order to make M4 useful in such a context, its
designers have equipped it with
changequote, which makes it
possible to choose another pair of quotes. M4sugar, M4sh, Autoconf, and
Autotest all have chosen to use ‘[’ and ‘]’. Not especially
because they are unlikely characters, but because they are
characters unlikely to be unbalanced.
There are other magic primitives, such as
changecom to specify
what syntactic forms are comments (it is common to see
‘changecom(<!--, -->)’ when M4 is used to produce HTML pages),
changesyntax to change other syntactic
details (such as the character to denote the nth argument, ‘$’ by
default, the parenthesis around arguments, etc.).
These primitives are really meant to make M4 more useful for specific
domains: they should be considered like command line options:
--quotes, --comments, --words, and
--syntax. Nevertheless, they are implemented as M4 builtins, as
it makes M4 libraries self contained (no need for additional options).
There lies the problem...
The problem is that it is then tempting to use them in the middle of an
M4 script, as opposed to its initialization. This, if not carefully
thought out, can lead to disastrous effects: you are changing the
language in the middle of the execution. Changing and restoring the
syntax is often not enough: if you happened to invoke macros in between,
these macros are lost, as the current syntax is probably not
the one they were implemented with.