These exercises give more examples on how to combine commands.
The main goal is to try and use the Enter key
as little as possible.
All exercises are done using a normal user ID, so as to generate
some errors. While you're at it, don't forget to read those man
Use the cut command on the output of a
long directory listing in order to display only the file
permissions. Then pipe this output to sort
and uniq to filter out any double lines.
Then use the wc to count the different
permission types in this directory.
Put the output of date in a file. Append
the output of ls to this file. Send this
file to your local mailbox (don't specify anything <
@domain>, just the
user name will do). When using Bash, you will see a new mail notice
List the devices in /dev which are
currently used by your UID. Pipe through less to view them properly.
Issue the following commands as a non-privileged user. Determine
standard input, output and error for each command.
/etc/passwd /etc/nofiles > grepresults
/etc/init.d/sshd start > /var/tmp/output
/etc/init.d/crond start > /var/tmp/output 2>&1
Now check your results by issuing the commands again, now
redirecting standardoutput to the file /var/tmp/output and standard error to the file
How many processes are you currently running?
How many invisible files are in your home directory?
Use locate to find documentation about
Find out which file contains the following entry:
And this one:
See what happens upon issuing this command:
> time; date >> time; cat <
What command would you use to check which script in /etc/init.d starts a given process?