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4.5. Summary

Linux is a multi-user, multi-tasking operating system that has a UNIX-like way of handling processes. Execution speed of commands can depend on a thousand tiny things. Among others, we learned a lot of new commands to visualize and handle processes. Here's a list:

Table 4-3. New commands in chapter 4: Processes

Command Meaning
at Queue jobs for later execution.
atq Lists the user's pending jobs.
atrm Deletes jobs, determined by their job number.
batch Executes commands when system load level permits.
crontab Maintain crontab files for individual users.
halt Stop the system.
init run level Process control initialization.
jobs Lists currently executing jobs.
kill Terminate a process.
mesg Control write access to your terminal.
netstat Display network connections, routing tables, interface statistics, masquerade connections and multicast memberships.
nice Run a program with modified scheduling priority.
pgrep Display processes.
ps Report process status.
pstree Display a tree of processes.
reboot Stop the system.
renice Alter priority of running processes.
shutdown Bring the system down.
sleep Delay for a specified time.
time Time a command or report resource usage.
top Display top CPU processes.
uptime Show how long the system has been running.
vmstat Report virtual memory statistics.
w Show who is logged on and what they are doing.
wall Send a message to everybody's terminals.
who Show who is logged on.
write Send a message to another user.
Introducing Linux
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