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4.3.5.3. Memory resources

When the currently running processes expect more memory than the system has physically available, a Linux system will not crash; it will start paging, or swapping, meaning the process uses the memory on disk or in swap space, moving contents of the physical memory (pieces of running programs or entire programs in the case of swapping) to disk, thus reclaiming the physical memory to handle more processes. This slows the system down enormously since access to disk is much slower than access to memory. The top command can be used to display memory and swap use. Systems using glibc offer the memusage and memusagestat commands to visualize memory usage.

If you find that a lot of memory and swap space are being used, you can try:

  • Killing, stopping or renicing those programs that use a big chunk of memory

  • Adding more memory (and in some cases more swap space) to the system.

  • Tuning system performance, which is beyond the scope of this document. See the reading list in Appendix A for more.

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