220.127.116.11. Making a mess...
... Is not a difficult thing to do. Today almost every system is
networked, so naturally files get copied from one machine to
another. And especially when working in a graphical environment,
creating new files is a piece of cake and is often done without the
approval of the user. To illustrate the problem, here's the full
content of a new user's directory, created on a standard RedHat
[[email protected] user]$ ls -al
drwx------ 3 user user 4096 Jan 16 13:32 .
drwxr-xr-x 6 root root 4096 Jan 16 13:32 ..
-rw-r--r-- 1 user user 24 Jan 16 13:32 .bash_logout
-rw-r--r-- 1 user user 191 Jan 16 13:32 .bash_profile
-rw-r--r-- 1 user user 124 Jan 16 13:32 .bashrc
drwxr-xr-x 3 user user 4096 Jan 16 13:32 .kde
-rw-r--r-- 1 user user 3511 Jan 16 13:32 .screenrc
-rw------- 1 user user 61 Jan 16 13:32 .xauthDqztLr
On first sight, the content of a "used" home directory doesn't look that bad
app-defaults/ crossover/ [email protected] mp3/ OpenOffice.org638/
articles/ Desktop/ GNUstep/ Nautilus/ staroffice6.0/
bin/ Desktop1/ images/ nqc/ training/
brol/ desktoptest/ [email protected] ns_imap/ webstart/
C/ Documents/ mail/ nsmail/ xml/
closed/ [email protected] Mail/ office52/ Xrootenv.0
But when all the directories and files starting with a dot are
included, there are 185 items in this directory. This is because
most applications have their own directories and/or files,
containing user-specific settings, in the home directory of that
user. Usually these files are created the first time you start an
application. In some cases you will be notified when a non-existent
directory needs to be created, but most of the time everything is
Furthermore, new files are created seemingly continuously
because users want to save files, keep different versions of their
work, use Internet applications, and download files and attachments
to their local machine. It doesn't stop. It is clear that one
definitely needs a scheme to keep an overview on things.
In the next section, we will discuss our means of keeping order.
We only discuss text tools available to the shell, since the
graphical tools are very intuitive and have the same look and feel
as the well known point-and-click MS Windows-style file managers,
including graphical help functions and other features you expect
from this kind of applications. The following list is an overview
of the most popular file managers for GNU/Linux. Most file managers
can be started from the menu of your desktop manager, or by
clicking your home directory icon, or from the command line,
issuing these commands:
These applications are certainly worth giving a try and usually
impress newcomers to Linux, if only because there is such a wide
variety: these are only the most popular tools for managing
directories and files, and many other projects are being developed.
Now let's find out about the internals and see how these graphical
tools use common UNIX commands.