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NOTE: CentOS Enterprise Linux is built from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux source code. Other than logo and name changes CentOS Enterprise Linux is compatible with the equivalent Red Hat version. This document applies equally to both Red Hat and CentOS Enterprise Linux.

16.7. PAM and Device Ownership

Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows the first user to log in on the physical console of the machine the ability to manipulate some devices and perform some tasks normally reserved for the root user. This is controlled by a PAM module called

16.7.1. Device Ownership

When a user logs into a Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, the module is called by login or the graphical login programs, gdm and kdm. If this user is the first user to log in at the physical console — called the console user — the module grants the user ownership of a variety of devices normally owned by root. The console user owns these devices until the last local session for that user ends. Once the user has logged out, ownership of the devices reverts back to the root user.

The devices affected include, but are not limited to, sound cards, diskette drives, and CD-ROM drives.

This allows a local user to manipulate these devices without attaining root access, thus simplifying common tasks for the console user.

By modifying the file /etc/security/console.perms, the administrator can edit the list of devices controlled by

Warning Warning

If the gdm, kdm, or xdm display manager configuration file has been altered to allow remote users to log in and the host is configured to run at runlevel 5, it is advisable to change the <console> and <xconsole> directives within the /etc/security/console.perms to the following values:

<console>=tty[0-9][0-9]* vc/[0-9][0-9]* :0\.[0-9] :0
<xconsole>=:0\.[0-9] :0

Doing this prevents remote users from gaining access to devices and restricted applications on the machine.

If the gdm, kdm, or xdm display manager configuration file has been altered to allow remote users to log in and the host is configured to run at any multiple user runlevel other than 5, it is advisable to remove the <xconsole> directive entirely and change the <console> directive to the following value:

<console>=tty[0-9][0-9]* vc/[0-9][0-9]*

16.7.2. Application Access

The console user is also allowed access to certain programs with a file bearing the command name in the /etc/security/console.apps/ directory.

One notable group of applications the console user has access to are three programs which shut off or reboot the system. These are:

  • /sbin/halt

  • /sbin/reboot

  • /sbin/poweroff

Because these are PAM-aware applications, they call the module as a requirement for use.

For more information, refer to the Section 16.8.1 Installed Documentation.

  Published under the terms of the GNU General Public License Design by Interspire