1.4 Conventions used in this manual
This manual contains many examples which can be typed at the keyboard.
A command entered at the terminal is shown like this,
followed by its output. For example:
$ echo "hello world"
The first character on the line is the terminal prompt, and should not
be typed. The dollar sign '$' is used as the standard prompt in
this manual, although some systems may use a different character.
When a command in an example is too long to fit in a single line it is
wrapped and then indented on subsequent lines, like this:
$ echo "an example of a line which is too long to fit
in this manual"
When entered at the keyboard, the entire command should be typed on a
The example source files used in this manual can be downloaded from the
publisher's website,(2) or entered by hand
using any text editor, such as the standard GNU editor,
The example compilation commands use
g++ as the
names of the GNU C and C++ compilers, and
cc to refer to other
compilers. The example programs should work with any version of GCC.
Any command-line options which are only available in recent versions of
GCC are noted in the text.
The examples assume the use of a GNU operating system--there may be
minor differences in the output on other systems. Some non-essential and
verbose system-dependent output messages (such as very long system
paths) have been edited in the examples for brevity. The commands
for setting environment variables use the syntax of the standard GNU
bash), and should work with any version of the Bourne