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Chapter 2. Installing Applications

2.1. How do I install new applications and where do they come from?
2.2. How do I use Synaptic to install packages?
2.3. How do I add Universe and Multiverse?
2.4. How do I add backports?
2.5. How do I keep Ubuntu updated?
2.6. How to backup/restore downloaded repositories cache?
2.7. How to manually update Ubuntu using Apt-get?
2.1.

How do I install new applications and where do they come from?

There are several methods installing new applications, of which Synaptic is the easiest. Synaptics' full usage is explained below.

All the software you install from Synaptic or apt-get comes from common online repositories that Ubuntu maintains. The applications in these repositories have been checked by Ubuntu and will be free of viruses and spyware, but some of the applications may still contain bugs.

Whether you use Synaptic or some of the other methods outlined below, they all share a common database and changes made in one will show up in any of the others.

2.2.

How do I use Synaptic to install packages?

To start Synaptic, choose System->Administration->Synaptic Package Manager The Synaptic screen is divided up into four sections, the two most important being the package categories on the left side, and the packages on the right. Each time you are required to install a package in this guide, it will be listed as follows:

Category > PackageName

To select a package to install:

  1. Choose the category on the left section of Synaptic.

  2. In the right section, find the package and click on the white box next to it. A menu will appear giving you several options depending on the status of the package, simply choose Mark for installation to select it for installation.

    [Tip]

    Alternatively you can click the Search toolbar button, enter the “PackageName” (the applications name) in the search text field and click the Search button. Synaptic will now show you a much shorter list from which to select your application for installation. This can be much easier than having to look through the very long list of applications on your own.

  3. If the package you chose to install requires other packages to also be installed a dialog box will appear. Click Mark to allow it to do so.

  4. Once you are happy with the package selections, click Apply on the top menubar. A dialog box will appear detailing the changes to your system, click Apply to begin installation.

  5. Synaptic will then fetch and install the packages you have selected. A progress dialog box will appear and it may ask you to insert other media (such as the Ubuntu CD-ROM).

  6. Once finished, you will be notified Changes applied, click Close to finish the installation.

2.3.

How do I add Universe and Multiverse?

By default, Ubuntu comes pre-configured with basic and security update repositories. To enable the extra Universe and Multiverse repositories:

  1. Start Synaptic by selecting System->Administration->Synaptic Package Manager from the desktop menu system.

  2. In Synaptic choose Settings-> Repositories.

  3. Click the Settings button.

  4. Tick Show disabled software sources, then click Close.

  5. On the Repositories dialog box click Add. There are three separate repositories; Breezy Badger, Security Updates and Updates. Select each repository and check Officially supported, Restricted copyright, Community maintained (Universe) and Non-free (Multiverse). Ensure you click OK between each repository to save your changes.

  6. You should now see checkboxes next to each repository, scroll through the list and ensure they are all checked.

2.4.

How do I add backports?

Backports are newer versions of applications made available for the current stable release of Ubuntu.

  1. Start Synaptic by selecting System->Administration->Synaptic Package Manager from the desktop menu system.

  2. In Synaptic choose Settings-> Repositories.

  3. Click on Add and then Custom.

  4. Paste the following line into the box:

    deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu breezy-backports main universe multiverse restricted

  5. Click Ok and then click Yes when it asks you to reload. Backports is now available.

2.5.

How do I keep Ubuntu updated?

When packages on your Ubuntu system need updating, Ubuntu will inform you with a popup from your notification area. When you see this popup, click Show Updates, Ubuntu will ask your for your password, enter it then click OK. In the Ubuntu Update Manager click Install, the system will fetch and install any updates that are needed. When it has finished, click Close, then close Ubuntu Update Manager.

2.6.

How to backup/restore downloaded repositories cache?

  1. To backup downloaded repositories cache

    mkdir -p $HOME/backup/var/lib/
    sudo cp -R /var/lib/apt/ $HOME/backup/var/lib/
    mkdir -p $HOME/backup/var/cache/
    sudo cp -R /var/cache/apt/ $HOME/backup/var/cache/
    mkdir -p $HOME/backup/etc/apt
    sudo cp -R /etc/apt/ $HOME/backup/etc/
    sudo chown -R $USER $HOME/backup/

  2. To restore downloaded repositories cache

    sudo cp -fR $HOME/backup/var/* /var/ 
    sudo cp -fR $HOME/backup/etc/apt/* /etc/apt/

2.7.

How to manually update Ubuntu using Apt-get?

  1. Read How do I add Universe and Multiverse?

  2. sudo apt-get update
    sudo apt-get upgrade

 
 
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