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5.2.5. The Server SQL Mode

The MySQL server can operate in different SQL modes, and can apply these modes differently for different clients. This capability enables each application to tailor the server's operating mode to its own requirements.

Modes define what SQL syntax MySQL should support and what kind of data validation checks it should perform. This makes it easier to use MySQL in different environments and to use MySQL together with other database servers.

You can set the default SQL mode by starting mysqld with the --sql-mode="modes" option. modes is a list of different modes separated by comma (‘,’) characters. The default value is empty (no modes set). The modes value also can be empty (--sql-mode="") if you want to clear it explicitly.

You can change the SQL mode at runtime by using a SET [GLOBAL|SESSION] sql_mode='modes' statement to set the sql_mode system value. Setting the GLOBAL variable requires the SUPER privilege and affects the operation of all clients that connect from that time on. Setting the SESSION variable affects only the current client. Any client can change its own session sql_mode value at any time.

You can retrieve the current global or session sql_mode value with the following statements:

SELECT @@global.sql_mode;
SELECT @@session.sql_mode;

The most important sql_mode values are probably these:

  • ANSI

    Change syntax and behavior to be more conformant to standard SQL.

  • STRICT_TRANS_TABLES

    If a value could not be inserted as given into a transactional table, abort the statement. For a non-transactional table, abort the statement if the value occurs in a single-row statement or the first row of a multiple-row statement. More detail is given later in this section.

  • TRADITIONAL

    Make MySQL behave like a “traditional” SQL database system. A simple description of this mode is “give an error instead of a warning” when inserting an incorrect value into a column. Note: The INSERT/UPDATE aborts as soon as the error is noticed. This may not be what you want if you are using a non-transactional storage engine, because data changes made prior to the error are not be rolled back, resulting in a “partially done” update.

When this manual refers to “strict mode,” it means a mode where at least one of STRICT_TRANS_TABLES or STRICT_ALL_TABLES is enabled.

The following list describes all supported modes:

  • ALLOW_INVALID_DATES

    Don't do full checking of dates. Check only that the month is in the range from 1 to 12 and the day is in the range from 1 to 31. This is very convenient for Web applications where you obtain year, month, and day in three different fields and you want to store exactly what the user inserted (without date validation). This mode applies to DATE and DATETIME columns. It does not apply TIMESTAMP columns, which always require a valid date.

    The server requires that month and day values be legal, and not merely in the range 1 to 12 and 1 to 31, respectively. With strict mode disabled, invalid dates such as '2004-04-31' are converted to '0000-00-00' and a warning is generated. With strict mode enabled, invalid dates generate an error. To allow such dates, enable ALLOW_INVALID_DATES.

  • ANSI_QUOTES

    Treat ‘"’ as an identifier quote character (like the ‘`’ quote character) and not as a string quote character. You can still use ‘`’ to quote identifiers with this mode enabled. With ANSI_QUOTES enabled, you cannot use double quotes to quote a literal string, because it is interpreted as an identifier.

  • ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO

    Produce an error in strict mode (otherwise a warning) when we encounter a division by zero (or MOD(X,0)) during an INSERT or UPDATE. If this mode is not enabled, MySQL instead returns NULL for divisions by zero. If used in INSERT IGNORE or UPDATE IGNORE, MySQL generates a warning for divisions by zero, but the result of the operation is NULL.

  • HIGH_NOT_PRECEDENCE

    The precedence of the NOT operator is such that expressions such as NOT a BETWEEN b AND c are parsed as NOT (a BETWEEN b AND c). In some older versions of MySQL, the expression was parsed as (NOT a) BETWEEN b AND c. The old higher-precedence behavior can be obtained by enabling the HIGH_NOT_PRECEDENCE SQL mode.

    mysql> SET sql_mode = '';
    mysql> SELECT NOT 1 BETWEEN -5 AND 5;
            -> 0
    mysql> SET sql_mode = 'broken_not';
    mysql> SELECT NOT 1 BETWEEN -5 AND 5;
            -> 1
    
  • IGNORE_SPACE

    Allow spaces between a function name and the ‘(’ character. This forces all function names to be treated as reserved words. As a result, if you want to access any database, table, or column name that is a reserved word, you must quote it. For example, because there is a USER() function, the name of the user table in the mysql database and the User column in that table become reserved, so you must quote them:

    SELECT "User" FROM mysql."user";
    

    The IGNORE_SPACE SQL mode applies to built-in functions, not to stored routines. it is always allowable to have spaces after a routine name, regardless of whether IGNORE_SPACE is enabled.

  • NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER

    Prevent GRANT from automatically creating new users if it would otherwise do so, unless a non-empty password also is specified.

  • NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO

    NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO affects handling of AUTO_INCREMENT columns. Normally, you generate the next sequence number for the column by inserting either NULL or 0 into it. NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO suppresses this behavior for 0 so that only NULL generates the next sequence number.

    This mode can be useful if 0 has been stored in a table's AUTO_INCREMENT column. (Storing 0 is not a recommended practice, by the way.) For example, if you dump the table with mysqldump and then reload it, MySQL normally generates new sequence numbers when it encounters the 0 values, resulting in a table with contents different from the one that was dumped. Enabling NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO before reloading the dump file solves this problem. mysqldump now automatically includes in its output a statement that enables NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO, to avoid this problem.

  • NO_BACKSLASH_ESCAPES

    Disable the use of the backslash character (‘\’) as an escape character within strings. With this mode enabled, backslash becomes any ordinary character like any other.

  • NO_DIR_IN_CREATE

    When creating a table, ignore all INDEX DIRECTORY and DATA DIRECTORY directives. This option is useful on slave replication servers.

  • NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION

    Prevents automatic substitution of the default storage engine when a statement such as CREATE TABLE specifies a storage engine that is disabled or not compiled in.

  • NO_FIELD_OPTIONS

    Do not print MySQL-specific column options in the output of SHOW CREATE TABLE. This mode is used by mysqldump in portability mode.

  • NO_KEY_OPTIONS

    Do not print MySQL-specific index options in the output of SHOW CREATE TABLE. This mode is used by mysqldump in portability mode.

  • NO_TABLE_OPTIONS

    Do not print MySQL-specific table options (such as ENGINE) in the output of SHOW CREATE TABLE. This mode is used by mysqldump in portability mode.

  • NO_UNSIGNED_SUBTRACTION

    In subtraction operations, do not mark the result as UNSIGNED if one of the operands is unsigned. Note that this makes BIGINT UNSIGNED not 100% usable in all contexts. See Section 12.8, “Cast Functions and Operators”.

  • NO_ZERO_DATE

    In strict mode, don't allow '0000-00-00' as a valid date. You can still insert zero dates with the IGNORE option. When not in strict mode, the date is accepted but a warning is generated.

  • NO_ZERO_IN_DATE

    In strict mode, don't accept dates where the month or day part is 0. If used with the IGNORE option, MySQL inserts a '0000-00-00' date for any such date. When not in strict mode, the date is accepted but a warning is generated.

  • ONLY_FULL_GROUP_BY

    Do not allow queries for which the GROUP BY clause refers to a column that is not present in the output column list.

  • PIPES_AS_CONCAT

    Treat || as a string concatenation operator (same as CONCAT()) rather than as a synonym for OR.

  • REAL_AS_FLOAT

    Treat REAL as a synonym for FLOAT. By default, MySQL treats REAL as a synonym for DOUBLE.

  • STRICT_ALL_TABLES

    Enable strict mode for all storage engines. Invalid data values are rejected. Additional detail follows.

  • STRICT_TRANS_TABLES

    Enable strict mode for transactional storage engines, and when possible for non-transactional storage engines. Additional details follow.

Strict mode controls how MySQL handles input values that are invalid or missing. A value can be invalid for several reasons. For example, it might have the wrong data type for the column, or it might be out of range. A value is missing when a new row to be inserted does not contain a value for a column that has no explicit DEFAULT clause in its definition.

For transactional tables, an error occurs for invalid or missing values in a statement when either of the STRICT_ALL_TABLES or STRICT_TRANS_TABLES modes are enabled. The statement is aborted and rolled back.

For non-transactional tables, the behavior is the same for either mode, if the bad value occurs in the first row to be inserted or updated. The statement is aborted and the table remains unchanged. If the statement inserts or modifies multiple rows and the bad value occurs in the second or later row, the result depends on which strict option is enabled:

  • For STRICT_ALL_TABLES, MySQL returns an error and ignores the rest of the rows. However, in this case, the earlier rows still have been inserted or updated. This means that you might get a partial update, which might not be what you want. To avoid this, it's best to use single-row statements because these can be aborted without changing the table.

  • For STRICT_TRANS_TABLES, MySQL converts an invalid value to the closest valid value for the column and insert the adjusted value. If a value is missing, MySQL inserts the implicit default value for the column data type. In either case, MySQL generates a warning rather than an error and continues processing the statement. Implicit defaults are described in Section 11.1.4, “Data Type Default Values”.

Strict mode disallows invalid date values such as '2004-04-31'. It does not disallow dates with zero parts such as '2004-04-00' or “zero” dates. To disallow these as well, enable the NO_ZERO_IN_DATE and NO_ZERO_DATE SQL modes in addition to strict mode.

If you are not using strict mode (that is, neither STRICT_TRANS_TABLES nor STRICT_ALL_TABLES is enabled), MySQL inserts adjusted values for invalid or missing values and produces warnings. In strict mode, you can produce this behavior by using INSERT IGNORE or UPDATE IGNORE. See Section 13.5.4.28, “SHOW WARNINGS Syntax”.

The following special modes are provided as shorthand for combinations of mode values from the preceding list.

The descriptions include all mode values that are available in the most recent version of MySQL. For older versions, a combination mode does not include individual mode values that are not available except in newer versions.

  • ANSI

    Equivalent to REAL_AS_FLOAT, PIPES_AS_CONCAT, ANSI_QUOTES, IGNORE_SPACE. See Section 1.9.3, “Running MySQL in ANSI Mode”.

  • DB2

    Equivalent to PIPES_AS_CONCAT, ANSI_QUOTES, IGNORE_SPACE, NO_KEY_OPTIONS, NO_TABLE_OPTIONS, NO_FIELD_OPTIONS.

  • MAXDB

    Equivalent to PIPES_AS_CONCAT, ANSI_QUOTES, IGNORE_SPACE, NO_KEY_OPTIONS, NO_TABLE_OPTIONS, NO_FIELD_OPTIONS, NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER.

  • MSSQL

    Equivalent to PIPES_AS_CONCAT, ANSI_QUOTES, IGNORE_SPACE, NO_KEY_OPTIONS, NO_TABLE_OPTIONS, NO_FIELD_OPTIONS.

  • MYSQL323

    Equivalent to NO_FIELD_OPTIONS, HIGH_NOT_PRECEDENCE.

  • MYSQL40

    Equivalent to NO_FIELD_OPTIONS, HIGH_NOT_PRECEDENCE.

  • ORACLE

    Equivalent to PIPES_AS_CONCAT, ANSI_QUOTES, IGNORE_SPACE, NO_KEY_OPTIONS, NO_TABLE_OPTIONS, NO_FIELD_OPTIONS, NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER.

  • POSTGRESQL

    Equivalent to PIPES_AS_CONCAT, ANSI_QUOTES, IGNORE_SPACE, NO_KEY_OPTIONS, NO_TABLE_OPTIONS, NO_FIELD_OPTIONS.

  • TRADITIONAL

    Equivalent to STRICT_TRANS_TABLES, STRICT_ALL_TABLES, NO_ZERO_IN_DATE, NO_ZERO_DATE, ERROR_FOR_DIVISION_BY_ZERO, NO_AUTO_CREATE_USER.


 
 
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