||Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6 Essentials eBook now available in PDF and ePub formats for only $9.99
RHEL 6 Essentials contains 40 chapters and over 250 pages.
2.2. PAM Configuration Files
/etc/pam.d/ directory contains the PAM configuration files for each PAM-aware application.
Each PAM-aware application or service has a file in the
/etc/pam.d/ directory. Each file in this directory has the same name as the service to which it controls access.
The PAM-aware program is responsible for defining its service name and installing its own PAM configuration file in the
/etc/pam.d/ directory. For example, the
login program defines its service name as
login and installs the
/etc/pam.d/login PAM configuration file.
2.2.2. PAM Configuration File Format
Each PAM configuration file contains a group of directives that define the module and any controls or arguments with it.
module_interface control_flag module_name module_arguments
22.214.171.124. PAM Module Interfaces
Four types of PAM module interface are available. Each of these corresponds to a different aspect of the authorization process:
auth — This module interface authenticates use. For example, it requests and verifies the validity of a password. Modules with this interface can also set credentials, such as group memberships or Kerberos tickets.
account — This module interface verifies that access is allowed. For example, it may check if a user account has expired or if a user is allowed to log in at a particular time of day.
password — This module interface is used for changing user passwords.
session — This module interface configures and manages user sessions. Modules with this interface can also perform additional tasks that are needed to allow access, like mounting a user's home directory and making the user's mailbox available.
An individual module can provide any or all module interfaces. For instance,
pam_unix.so provides all four module interfaces.
In a PAM configuration file, the module interface is the first field defined. For example, a typical line in a configuration may look like this:
auth required pam_unix.so
This instructs PAM to use the
Module interface directives can be stacked, or placed upon one another, so that multiple modules are used together for one purpose. If a module's control flag uses the
requisite value, then the order in which the modules are listed is important to the authentication process.
Stacking makes it easy for an administrator to require specific conditions to exist before allowing the user to authenticate. For example, the
reboot command normally uses several stacked modules, as seen in its PAM configuration file:
[root@MyServer ~]# cat /etc/pam.d/reboot
auth sufficient pam_rootok.so
auth required pam_console.so
#auth include system-auth
account required pam_permit.so
The first line is a comment and is not processed.
auth sufficient pam_rootok.so — This line uses the
pam_rootok.so module to check whether the current user is root, by verifying that their UID is 0. If this test succeeds, no other modules are consulted and the command is executed. If this test fails, the next module is consulted.
auth required pam_console.so — This line uses the
pam_console.so module to attempt to authenticate the user. If this user is already logged in at the console,
pam_console.so checks whether there is a file in the
/etc/security/console.apps/ directory with the same name as the service name (reboot). If such a file exists, authentication succeeds and control is passed to the next module.
#auth include system-auth — This line is commented and is not processed.
account required pam_permit.so — This line uses the
pam_permit.so module to allow the root user or anyone logged in at the console to reboot the system.
126.96.36.199. PAM Control Flags
All PAM modules generate a success or failure result when called. Control flags tell PAM what do with the result. Modules can be stacked in a particular order, and the control flags determine how important the success or failure of a particular module is to the overall goal of authenticating the user to the service.
There are several simple flags, which use only a keyword to set the configuration:
required — The module result must be successful for authentication to continue. If the test fails at this point, the user is not notified until the results of all module tests that reference that interface are complete.
requisite — The module result must be successful for authentication to continue. However, if a test fails at this point, the user is notified immediately with a message reflecting the first failed
requisite module test.
sufficient — The module result is ignored if it fails. However, if the result of a module flagged
sufficient is successful and no previous modules flagged
required have failed, then no other results are required and the user is authenticated to the service.
optional — The module result is ignored. A module flagged as
optional only becomes necessary for successful authentication when no other modules reference the interface.
include — Unlike the other controls, this does not relate to how the module result is handled. This flag pulls in all lines in the configuration file which match the given parameter and appends them as an argument to the module.
The order in which
required modules are called is not critical. Only the
requisite control flags cause order to become important.
There are many complex control flags that can be set. These are set in attribute=value pairs; a complete list of attributes is available in the
188.8.131.52. PAM Module Names
The module name provides PAM with the name of the pluggable module containing the specified module interface. The directory name is omitted because the application is linked to the appropriate version of
libpam, which can locate the correct version of the module.
184.108.40.206. PAM Module Arguments
PAM uses arguments to pass information to a pluggable module during authentication for some modules.
For example, the
pam_userdb.so module uses information stored in a Berkeley DB file to authenticate the user. Berkeley DB is an open source database system embedded in many applications. The module takes a
db argument so that Berkeley DB knows which database to use for the requested service. For example:
auth required pam_userdb.so db=
Invalid arguments are generally ignored and do not otherwise affect the success or failure of the PAM module. Some modules, however, may fail on invalid arguments. Most modules report errors to the
2.2.3. Sample PAM Configuration Files
Example 2.1. Simple PAM Configuration
auth required pam_securetty.so
auth required pam_unix.so nullok
auth required pam_nologin.so
account required pam_unix.so
password required pam_cracklib.so retry=3
password required pam_unix.so shadow nullok use_authtok
session required pam_unix.so
The first line is a comment, indicated by the hash mark (
#) at the beginning of the line.
Lines two through four stack three modules for login authentication.
auth required pam_securetty.so — This module ensures that if the user is trying to log in as root, the tty on which the user is logging in is listed in the
/etc/securetty file, if that file exists.
If the tty is not listed in the file, any attempt to log in as root fails with a
Login incorrect message.
auth required pam_unix.so nullok — This module prompts the user for a password and then checks the password using the information stored in
/etc/passwd and, if it exists,
nullok instructs the
pam_unix.so module to allow a blank password.
auth required pam_nologin.so — This is the final authentication step. It checks whether the
/etc/nologin file exists. If it exists and the user is not root, authentication fails.
In this example, all three
auth modules are checked, even if the first
auth module fails. This prevents the user from knowing at what stage their authentication failed. Such knowledge in the hands of an attacker could allow them to more easily deduce how to crack the system.
account required pam_unix.so — This module performs any necessary account verification. For example, if shadow passwords have been enabled, the account interface of the
pam_unix.so module checks to see if the account has expired or if the user has not changed the password within the allowed grace period.
password required pam_cracklib.so retry=3 — If a password has expired, the password component of the
pam_cracklib.so module prompts for a new password. It then tests the newly created password to see whether it can easily be determined by a dictionary-based password cracking program.
retry=3 specifies that if the test fails the first time, the user has two more chances to create a strong password.
password required pam_unix.so shadow nullok use_authtok — This line specifies that if the program changes the user's password, it should use the
password interface of the
pam_unix.so module to do so.
shadow instructs the module to create shadow passwords when updating a user's password.
nullok instructs the module to allow the user to change their password from a blank password, otherwise a null password is treated as an account lock.
The final argument on this line,
use_authtok, provides a good example of the importance of order when stacking PAM modules. This argument instructs the module not to prompt the user for a new password. Instead, it accepts any password that was recorded by a previous password module. In this way, all new passwords must pass the
pam_cracklib.so test for secure passwords before being accepted.
session required pam_unix.so — The final line instructs the session interface of the
pam_unix.so module to manage the session. This module logs the user name and the service type to
/var/log/secure at the beginning and end of each session. This module can be supplemented by stacking it with other session modules for additional functionality.