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Thinking in Java
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Thread performance

The CPU SAMPLES section shows the CPU utilization. Here is part of a trace from this section.

CPU SAMPLES BEGIN (total = 514) Thu Jul 18 11:23:06 2002
rank   self  accum   count trace method
   1 28.21% 28.21%     145   662 java.util.AbstractList.iterator
   2 12.06% 40.27%      62   589 java.util.AbstractList.iterator
   3 10.12% 50.39%      52   632 java.util.LinkedList.listIterator
   4  7.00% 57.39%      36   231
   5  5.64% 63.04%      29   605 ListPerformance$4.test
   6  3.70% 66.73%      19   636 java.util.LinkedList.addBefore

The organization of this listing is similar to the organization of the SITES listings. The rows are sorted by CPU utilization. The row on the top has the maximum CPU utilization, as indicated in the self column. The accum column lists the cumulative CPU utilization. The count field specifies the number of times this trace was active. The next two columns specify the trace number and the method that took this time.

Consider the first row of the CPU SAMPLES section. 28.12% of total CPU time was utilized in the method java.util.AbstractList.iterator( ), and it was called 145 times. The details of this call can be seen by looking at trace number 662:

TRACE 662: (thread=1)

You can infer that iterating through a list takes a significant amount of time.

For large projects it is often more helpful to have the information represented in graphical form. A number of profilers produce graphical displays, but coverage of these is beyond the scope of this book.
Thinking in Java
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   Reproduced courtesy of Bruce Eckel, MindView, Inc. Design by Interspire