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Thinking in Java
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Selecting Look & Feel

“Pluggable Look & Feel” allows your program to emulate the look and feel of various operating environments. You can even do all sorts of fancy things, like dynamically changing the look and feel while the program is executing. However, you generally just want to do one of two things: either select the “cross platform” look and feel (which is Swing’s “metal”), or select the look and feel for the system you are currently on so your Java program looks like it was created specifically for that system (this is almost certainly the best choice in most cases, to avoid confounding the user). The code to select either of these behaviors is quite simple, but you must execute it before you create any visual components, because the components will be made based on the current look and feel, and will not be changed just because you happen to change the look and feel midway during the program (that process is more complicated and uncommon, and is relegated to Swing-specific books).

Actually, if you want to use the cross-platform (“metal”) look and feel that is characteristic of Swing programs, you don’t have to do anything—it’s the default. But if you want instead to use the current operating environment’s look and feel, you just insert the following code, typically at the beginning of your main( ), but at least before any components are added:

try {
  UIManager.setLookAndFeel(UIManager.
    getSystemLookAndFeelClassName());
} catch(Exception e) {
  throw new RuntimeException(e);
}


You don’t need anything in the catch clause because the UIManager will default to the cross-platform look and feel if your attempts to set up any of the alternatives fail. However, during debugging the exception can be quite useful, so you may at least want see some results via the catch clause.

Here is a program that takes a command-line argument to select a look and feel, and shows how several different components look under the chosen look and feel:

//: c14:LookAndFeel.java
// Selecting different looks & feels.
import javax.swing.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.util.*;
import com.bruceeckel.swing.*;

public class LookAndFeel extends JFrame {
  private String[] choices = {
    "eeny","meeny","Minnie","Mickey","Moe","Larry","Curly"
  };
  private Component[] samples = {
    new JButton("JButton"),
    new JTextField("JTextField"),
    new JLabel("JLabel"),
    new JCheckBox("JCheckBox"),
    new JRadioButton("Radio"),
    new JComboBox(choices),
    new JList(choices),
  };
  public LookAndFeel() {
    super("Look And Feel");
    Container cp = getContentPane();
    cp.setLayout(new FlowLayout());
    for(int i = 0; i < samples.length; i++)
      cp.add(samples[i]);
  }
  private static void usageError() {
    System.out.println(
      "Usage:LookAndFeel [cross|system|motif]");
    System.exit(1);
  }
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    if(args.length == 0) usageError();
    if(args[0].equals("cross")) {
      try {
        UIManager.setLookAndFeel(UIManager.
          getCrossPlatformLookAndFeelClassName());
      } catch(Exception e) {
        e.printStackTrace();
      }
    } else if(args[0].equals("system")) {
      try {
        UIManager.setLookAndFeel(UIManager.
          getSystemLookAndFeelClassName());
      } catch(Exception e) {
        e.printStackTrace();
      }
    } else if(args[0].equals("motif")) {
      try {
        UIManager.setLookAndFeel("com.sun.java."+
          "swing.plaf.motif.MotifLookAndFeel");
      } catch(Exception e) {
        e.printStackTrace();
      }
    } else usageError();
    // Note the look & feel must be set before
    // any components are created.
    Console.run(new LookAndFeel(), 300, 200);
  }
} ///:~


You can see that one option is to explicitly specify a string for a look and feel, as seen with MotifLookAndFeel. However, that one and the default “metal” look and feel are the only ones that can legally be used on any platform; even though there are strings for Windows and Macintosh look and feels, those can only be used on their respective platforms (these are produced when you call getSystemLookAndFeelClassName( ) and you’re on that particular platform).

It is also possible to create a custom look and feel package, for example, if you are building a framework for a company that wants a distinctive appearance. This is a big job and is far beyond the scope of this book (in fact, you’ll discover it is beyond the scope of many dedicated Swing books!).
Thinking in Java
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   Reproduced courtesy of Bruce Eckel, MindView, Inc. Design by Interspire