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Thinking in Java
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The link to the outer class

So far, it appears that inner classes are just a name-hiding and code-organization scheme, which is helpful but not totally compelling. However, there’s another twist. When you create an inner class, an object of that inner class has a link to the enclosing object that made it, and so it can access the members of that enclosing object—without any special qualifications. In addition, inner classes have access rights to all the elements in the enclosing class.[35] The following example demonstrates this:

//: c08:Sequence.java
// Holds a sequence of Objects.
import com.bruceeckel.simpletest.*;

interface Selector {
  boolean end();
  Object current();
  void next();
}

public class Sequence {
  private static Test monitor = new Test();
  private Object[] objects;
  private int next = 0;
  public Sequence(int size) { objects = new Object[size]; }
  public void add(Object x) {
    if(next < objects.length)
      objects[next++] = x;
  }
  private class SSelector implements Selector {
    private int i = 0;
    public boolean end() { return i == objects.length; }
    public Object current() { return objects[i]; }
    public void next() { if(i < objects.length) i++; }
  }
  public Selector getSelector() { return new SSelector(); }
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    Sequence sequence = new Sequence(10);
    for(int i = 0; i < 10; i++)
      sequence.add(Integer.toString(i));
    Selector selector = sequence.getSelector();
    while(!selector.end()) {
      System.out.println(selector.current());
      selector.next();
    }
    monitor.expect(new String[] {
      "0",
      "1",
      "2",
      "3",
      "4",
      "5",
      "6",
      "7",
      "8",
      "9"
    });
  }
} ///:~


The Sequence is simply a fixed-sized array of Object with a class wrapped around it. You call add( ) to add a new Object to the end of the sequence (if there’s room left). To fetch each of the objects in a Sequence, there’s an interface called Selector, which allows you to see if you’re at the end( ), to look at the current( ) Object, and to move to the next( ) Object in the Sequence. Because Selector is an interface, many other classes can implement the interface in their own ways, and many methods can take the interface as an argument, in order to create generic code.

Here, the SSelector is a private class that provides Selector functionality. In main( ), you can see the creation of a Sequence, followed by the addition of a number of String objects. Then, a Selector is produced with a call to getSelector( ), and this is used to move through the Sequence and select each item.

At first, the creation of SSelector looks like just another inner class. But examine it closely. Note that each of the methods—end( ), current( ), and next( )—refer to objects, which is a reference that isn’t part of SSelector, but is instead a private field in the enclosing class. However, the inner class can access methods and fields from the enclosing class as if it owned them. This turns out to be very convenient, as you can see in the preceding example.

So an inner class has automatic access to the members of the enclosing class. How can this happen? The inner class must keep a reference to the particular object of the enclosing class that was responsible for creating it. Then, when you refer to a member of the enclosing class, that (hidden) reference is used to select that member. Fortunately, the compiler takes care of all these details for you, but you can also understand now that an object of an inner class can be created only in association with an object of the enclosing class. Construction of the inner class object requires the reference to the object of the enclosing class, and the compiler will complain if it cannot access that reference. Most of the time this occurs without any intervention on the part of the programmer.
Thinking in Java
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   Reproduced courtesy of Bruce Eckel, MindView, Inc. Design by Interspire