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Thinking in Java
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Summary

In any relationship it’s important to have boundaries that are respected by all parties involved. When you create a library, you establish a relationship with the user of that library—the client programmer—who is another programmer, but one putting together an application or using your library to build a bigger library.

Without rules, client programmers can do anything they want with all the members of a class, even if you might prefer they don’t directly manipulate some of the members. Everything’s naked to the world.

This chapter looked at how classes are built to form libraries: first, the way a group of classes is packaged within a library, and second, the way the class controls access to its members.

It is estimated that a C programming project begins to break down somewhere between 50K and 100K lines of code because C has a single “name space”: names begin to collide, causing an extra management overhead. In Java, the package keyword, the package naming scheme, and the import keyword give you complete control over names, so the issue of name collision is easily avoided.

There are two reasons for controlling access to members. The first is to keep users’ hands off tools that they shouldn’t touch: tools that are necessary for the internal operations of the data type, but not part of the interface that users need to solve their particular problems. So making methods and fields private is a service to users, because they can easily see what’s important to them and what they can ignore. It simplifies their understanding of the class.

The second and most important reason for access control is to allow the library designer to change the internal workings of the class without worrying about how it will affect the client programmer. You might build a class one way at first, and then discover that restructuring your code will provide much greater speed. If the interface and implementation are clearly separated and protected, you can accomplish this without forcing users to rewrite their code.

Access specifiers in Java give valuable control to the creator of a class. The users of the class can clearly see exactly what they can use and what to ignore. More important, though, is the ability to ensure that no user becomes dependent on any part of the underlying implementation of a class. If you know this as the creator of the class, you can change the underlying implementation at will, because you know that no client programmer will be affected by the changes; they can’t access that part of the class.

When you have the ability to change the underlying implementation, you can freely improve your design. You also have the freedom to make mistakes. No matter how carefully you plan and design, you’ll make mistakes. Knowing that it’s relatively safe to make these mistakes means you’ll be more experimental, you’ll learn more quickly, and you’ll finish your project sooner.

The public interface to a class is what the user does see, so that is the most important part of the class to get “right” during analysis and design. Even that allows you some leeway for change. If you don’t get the interface right the first time, you can add more methods, as long as you don’t remove any that client programmers have already used in their code.
Thinking in Java
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   Reproduced courtesy of Bruce Eckel, MindView, Inc. Design by Interspire