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Thinking in Java
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A compendium of operators

The following example shows which primitive data types can be used with particular operators. Basically, it is the same example repeated over and over, but using different primitive data types. The file will compile without error because the lines that would cause errors are commented out with a //!.

//: c03:AllOps.java
// Tests all the operators on all the primitive data types
// to show which ones are accepted by the Java compiler.

public class AllOps {
  // To accept the results of a boolean test:
  void f(boolean b) {}
  void boolTest(boolean x, boolean y) {
    // Arithmetic operators:
    //! x = x * y;
    //! x = x / y;
    //! x = x % y;
    //! x = x + y;
    //! x = x - y;
    //! x++;
    //! x--;
    //! x = +y;
    //! x = -y;
    // Relational and logical:
    //! f(x > y);
    //! f(x >= y);
    //! f(x < y);
    //! f(x <= y);
    f(x == y);
    f(x != y);
    f(!y);
    x = x && y;
    x = x || y;
    // Bitwise operators:
    //! x = ~y;
    x = x & y;
    x = x | y;
    x = x ^ y;
    //! x = x << 1;
    //! x = x >> 1;
    //! x = x >>> 1;
    // Compound assignment:
    //! x += y;
    //! x -= y;
    //! x *= y;
    //! x /= y;
    //! x %= y;
    //! x <<= 1;
    //! x >>= 1;
    //! x >>>= 1;
    x &= y;
    x ^= y;
    x |= y;
    // Casting:
    //! char c = (char)x;
    //! byte B = (byte)x;
    //! short s = (short)x;
    //! int i = (int)x;
    //! long l = (long)x;
    //! float f = (float)x;
    //! double d = (double)x;
  }
  void charTest(char x, char y) {
    // Arithmetic operators:
    x = (char)(x * y);
    x = (char)(x / y);
    x = (char)(x % y);
    x = (char)(x + y);
    x = (char)(x - y);
    x++;
    x--;
    x = (char)+y;
    x = (char)-y;
    // Relational and logical:
    f(x > y);
    f(x >= y);
    f(x < y);
    f(x <= y);
    f(x == y);
    f(x != y);
    //! f(!x);
    //! f(x && y);
    //! f(x || y);
    // Bitwise operators:
    x= (char)~y;
    x = (char)(x & y);
    x  = (char)(x | y);
    x = (char)(x ^ y);
    x = (char)(x << 1);
    x = (char)(x >> 1);
    x = (char)(x >>> 1);
    // Compound assignment:
    x += y;
    x -= y;
    x *= y;
    x /= y;
    x %= y;
    x <<= 1;
    x >>= 1;
    x >>>= 1;
    x &= y;
    x ^= y;
    x |= y;
    // Casting:
    //! boolean b = (boolean)x;
    byte B = (byte)x;
    short s = (short)x;
    int i = (int)x;
    long l = (long)x;
    float f = (float)x;
    double d = (double)x;
  }
  void byteTest(byte x, byte y) {
    // Arithmetic operators:
    x = (byte)(x* y);
    x = (byte)(x / y);
    x = (byte)(x % y);
    x = (byte)(x + y);
    x = (byte)(x - y);
    x++;
    x--;
    x = (byte)+ y;
    x = (byte)- y;
    // Relational and logical:
    f(x > y);
    f(x >= y);
    f(x < y);
    f(x <= y);
    f(x == y);
    f(x != y);
    //! f(!x);
    //! f(x && y);
    //! f(x || y);
    // Bitwise operators:
    x = (byte)~y;
    x = (byte)(x & y);
    x = (byte)(x | y);
    x = (byte)(x ^ y);
    x = (byte)(x << 1);
    x = (byte)(x >> 1);
    x = (byte)(x >>> 1);
    // Compound assignment:
    x += y;
    x -= y;
    x *= y;
    x /= y;
    x %= y;
    x <<= 1;
    x >>= 1;
    x >>>= 1;
    x &= y;
    x ^= y;
    x |= y;
    // Casting:
    //! boolean b = (boolean)x;
    char c = (char)x;
    short s = (short)x;
    int i = (int)x;
    long l = (long)x;
    float f = (float)x;
    double d = (double)x;
  }
  void shortTest(short x, short y) {
    // Arithmetic operators:
    x = (short)(x * y);
    x = (short)(x / y);
    x = (short)(x % y);
    x = (short)(x + y);
    x = (short)(x - y);
    x++;
    x--;
    x = (short)+y;
    x = (short)-y;
    // Relational and logical:
    f(x > y);
    f(x >= y);
    f(x < y);
    f(x <= y);
    f(x == y);
    f(x != y);
    //! f(!x);
    //! f(x && y);
    //! f(x || y);
    // Bitwise operators:
    x = (short)~y;
    x = (short)(x & y);
    x = (short)(x | y);
    x = (short)(x ^ y);
    x = (short)(x << 1);
    x = (short)(x >> 1);
    x = (short)(x >>> 1);
    // Compound assignment:
    x += y;
    x -= y;
    x *= y;
    x /= y;
    x %= y;
    x <<= 1;
    x >>= 1;
    x >>>= 1;
    x &= y;
    x ^= y;
    x |= y;
    // Casting:
    //! boolean b = (boolean)x;
    char c = (char)x;
    byte B = (byte)x;
    int i = (int)x;
    long l = (long)x;
    float f = (float)x;
    double d = (double)x;
  }
  void intTest(int x, int y) {
    // Arithmetic operators:
    x = x * y;
    x = x / y;
    x = x % y;
    x = x + y;
    x = x - y;
    x++;
    x--;
    x = +y;
    x = -y;
    // Relational and logical:
    f(x > y);
    f(x >= y);
    f(x < y);
    f(x <= y);
    f(x == y);
    f(x != y);
    //! f(!x);
    //! f(x && y);
    //! f(x || y);
    // Bitwise operators:
    x = ~y;
    x = x & y;
    x = x | y;
    x = x ^ y;
    x = x << 1;
    x = x >> 1;
    x = x >>> 1;
    // Compound assignment:
    x += y;
    x -= y;
    x *= y;
    x /= y;
    x %= y;
    x <<= 1;
    x >>= 1;
    x >>>= 1;
    x &= y;
    x ^= y;
    x |= y;
    // Casting:
    //! boolean b = (boolean)x;
    char c = (char)x;
    byte B = (byte)x;
    short s = (short)x;
    long l = (long)x;
    float f = (float)x;
    double d = (double)x;
  }
  void longTest(long x, long y) {
    // Arithmetic operators:
    x = x * y;
    x = x / y;
    x = x % y;
    x = x + y;
    x = x - y;
    x++;
    x--;
    x = +y;
    x = -y;
    // Relational and logical:
    f(x > y);
    f(x >= y);
    f(x < y);
    f(x <= y);
    f(x == y);
    f(x != y);
    //! f(!x);
    //! f(x && y);
    //! f(x || y);
    // Bitwise operators:
    x = ~y;
    x = x & y;
    x = x | y;
    x = x ^ y;
    x = x << 1;
    x = x >> 1;
    x = x >>> 1;
    // Compound assignment:
    x += y;
    x -= y;
    x *= y;
    x /= y;
    x %= y;
    x <<= 1;
    x >>= 1;
    x >>>= 1;
    x &= y;
    x ^= y;
    x |= y;
    // Casting:
    //! boolean b = (boolean)x;
    char c = (char)x;
    byte B = (byte)x;
    short s = (short)x;
    int i = (int)x;
    float f = (float)x;
    double d = (double)x;
  }
  void floatTest(float x, float y) {
    // Arithmetic operators:
    x = x * y;
    x = x / y;
    x = x % y;
    x = x + y;
    x = x - y;
    x++;
    x--;
    x = +y;
    x = -y;
    // Relational and logical:
    f(x > y);
    f(x >= y);
    f(x < y);
    f(x <= y);
    f(x == y);
    f(x != y);
    //! f(!x);
    //! f(x && y);
    //! f(x || y);
    // Bitwise operators:
    //! x = ~y;
    //! x = x & y;
    //! x = x | y;
    //! x = x ^ y;
    //! x = x << 1;
    //! x = x >> 1;
    //! x = x >>> 1;
    // Compound assignment:
    x += y;
    x -= y;
    x *= y;
    x /= y;
    x %= y;
    //! x <<= 1;
    //! x >>= 1;
    //! x >>>= 1;
    //! x &= y;
    //! x ^= y;
    //! x |= y;
    // Casting:
    //! boolean b = (boolean)x;
    char c = (char)x;
    byte B = (byte)x;
    short s = (short)x;
    int i = (int)x;
    long l = (long)x;
    double d = (double)x;
  }
  void doubleTest(double x, double y) {
    // Arithmetic operators:
    x = x * y;
    x = x / y;
    x = x % y;
    x = x + y;
    x = x - y;
    x++;
    x--;
    x = +y;
    x = -y;
    // Relational and logical:
    f(x > y);
    f(x >= y);
    f(x < y);
    f(x <= y);
    f(x == y);
    f(x != y);
    //! f(!x);
    //! f(x && y);
    //! f(x || y);
    // Bitwise operators:
    //! x = ~y;
    //! x = x & y;
    //! x = x | y;
    //! x = x ^ y;
    //! x = x << 1;
    //! x = x >> 1;
    //! x = x >>> 1;
    // Compound assignment:
    x += y;
    x -= y;
    x *= y;
    x /= y;
    x %= y;
    //! x <<= 1;
    //! x >>= 1;
    //! x >>>= 1;
    //! x &= y;
    //! x ^= y;
    //! x |= y;
    // Casting:
    //! boolean b = (boolean)x;
    char c = (char)x;
    byte B = (byte)x;
    short s = (short)x;
    int i = (int)x;
    long l = (long)x;
    float f = (float)x;
  }
} ///:~


Note that boolean is quite limited. You can assign to it the values true and false, and you can test it for truth or falsehood, but you cannot add booleans or perform any other type of operation on them.

In char, byte, and short, you can see the effect of promotion with the arithmetic operators. Each arithmetic operation on any of those types produces an int result, which must be explicitly cast back to the original type (a narrowing conversion that might lose information) to assign back to that type. With int values, however, you do not need to cast, because everything is already an int. Don’t be lulled into thinking everything is safe, though. If you multiply two ints that are big enough, you’ll overflow the result. The following example demonstrates this:

//: c03:Overflow.java
// Surprise! Java lets you overflow.
import com.bruceeckel.simpletest.*;

public class Overflow {
  static Test monitor = new Test();
  public static void main(String[] args) {
    int big = 0x7fffffff; // max int value
    System.out.println("big = " + big);
    int bigger = big * 4;
    System.out.println("bigger = " + bigger);
    monitor.expect(new String[] {
      "big = 2147483647",
      "bigger = -4"
    });
  }
} ///:~


You get no errors or warnings from the compiler, and no exceptions at run time. Java is good, but it’s not that good.

Compound assignments do not require casts for char, byte, or short, even though they are performing promotions that have the same results as the direct arithmetic operations. On the other hand, the lack of the cast certainly simplifies the code.

You can see that, with the exception of boolean, any primitive type can be cast to any other primitive type. Again, you must be aware of the effect of a narrowing conversion when casting to a smaller type, otherwise you might unknowingly lose information during the cast.
Thinking in Java
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   Reproduced courtesy of Bruce Eckel, MindView, Inc. Design by Interspire